7th Anniversary

7th Anniversary

Happy anniversary! Thank you for the all of the contributions you made in making our company succesful. Kind Regards,
6th Anniversary

6th Anniversary

Happy anniversary!
Thank you for the all of the contributions you made in making our company succesful.

Kind Regards,

Qeshm Virtual Air Has Purchased 4 Airbus 330-200 For ” IKA & Mashhad ” Airport Hub

Qeshm Virtual Air Has Purchased 4 Airbus 330-200 For ” IKA & Mashhad ” Airport Hub

The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of Airbus Group. Versions of the A330 have a range of 5,000 to 13,430 kilometres (2,700 to 7,250 nmi; 3,110 to 8,350 mi) and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry 70 tonnes (154,000 lb) of cargo.

The A330’s origin dates to the mid-1970s as one of several conceived derivatives of Airbus’s first airliner, the A300. The A330 was developed in parallel with the four-engine A340, which shared many common airframe components but differed in number of engines. Both airliners incorporated fly-by-wire flight control technology, first introduced on an Airbus aircraft with the A320, as well as the A320’s six-display glass cockpit. In June 1987, after receiving orders from various customers, Airbus launched the A330 and A340. The A330 was Airbus’s first airliner that offered a choice of three engines: General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, and Rolls-Royce Trent 700.

The A330-300, the first variant, took its maiden flight in November 1992 and entered passenger service with Air Inter in January 1994. Airbus followed up with the slightly shorter A330-200 variant in 1998. Subsequently-developed A330 variants include a dedicated freighter, the A330-200F, a military tanker, the A330 MRTT, and a corporate jet, ACJ330. The A330 MRTT formed the basis of the proposed KC-45, entered into the US Air Force’s KC-X competition in conjunction with Northrop Grumman, where after an initial win, on appeal lost to Boeing’s tanker.

Since its launch, the A330 has allowed Airbus to expand market share in wide-body airliners. Competing twinjets include the Boeing 767 and 777, along with the 787, which entered service in late 2011. The long-range Airbus A350 XWB was planned to succeed both the A330 and A340. The current A330 (referred to as the A330ceo (current engine option) since 2014) is to be replaced by the A330neo, which includes new engines and other improvements. As of June 2017, A330 orders stand at 1,685, of which 1,354 have been delivered and 1,324 remain in operation. The largest operator is Turkish Airlines with 64 A330s in its fleet.

Background

Airbus jetliners, 1972–1994
Model A300 A310 A320 A330 A340
Prior
code(s)
B10 SA2 B9
(TA9)
B11
(TA11)
Debut 1972 1983 1988 1994 1993
Body Wide Wide Narrow Wide Wide
Engines 2 2 2 2 4
Range Short/
medium
Medium/
long
Short/
medium
Medium/
long
Long

Airbus’s first airliner, the A300, was envisioned as part of a diverse family of commercial aircraft. In pursuit of this goal, studies began in the early 1970s into derivatives of the A300. Before introducing the A300, Airbus identified nine possible variations designated B1 through B9.[10] A tenth variant, the A300B10, was conceived in 1973 and developed into the longer range Airbus A310. Airbus then focused its efforts on single-aisle (SA) studies, conceiving a family of airliners later known as the Airbus A320 family, the first commercial aircraft with digital fly-by-wire controls. During these studies Airbus turned its focus back to the wide-body aircraft market, simultaneously working on both projects.

In the mid-1970s Airbus began development of the A300B9, a larger derivative of the A300, which would eventually become the A330. The B9 was essentially a lengthened A300 with the same wing, coupled with the most powerful turbofan engines available. It was targeted at the growing demand for high-capacity, medium-range, transcontinental trunk routes. Offering the same range and payload as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 but with 25 per cent more fuel efficiency, the B9 was seen as a viable replacement for the DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijets. It was also considered as a medium-ranged successor to the A300.

At the same time, a 200-seat four-engine version, the B11 (which would eventually become the A340) was also under development. The B11 was originally planned to take the place of narrow-body Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s then in commercial use, but would later evolve to target the long-range, wide-body trijet replacement market. To differentiate from the SA series, the B9 and B11 were re-designated as the TA9 and TA11, with TA standing for “twin aisle”. Development costs were reduced by the two aircraft using the same fuselage and wing, with projected savings of US$500 million. Another factor was the split preference of those within Airbus and, more importantly, those of prospective customers; twinjets were favoured in North America, quad-jets desired in Asia, and operators had mixed views in Europe. Airbus ultimately found that most potential customers favoured four engines due to their exemption from existing twinjet range restrictions and their ability to be ferried with one inactive engine. As a result, development plans prioritised the four-engined TA11 ahead of the TA9.

Design effort

The first specifications for the TA9 and TA11, aircraft that could accommodate 410 passengers in a one-class layout, emerged in 1982. They showed a large underfloor cargo area that could hold five cargo pallets or sixteen LD3 cargo containers in the forward, and four pallets or fourteen LD3s in the aft hold—double the capacity of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar or DC-10, and 8.46 metres (27.8 ft) longer than the Airbus A300. By June 1985, the TA9 and TA11 had received more improvements, including the adoption of the A320 flight deck, digital fly-by-wire (FBW) control system, and side-stick control. Airbus had developed a common cockpit for their aircraft models to allow quick transition by pilots. The flight crews could transition from one type to another after only one week’s training, which reduces operator costs.The two TAs would use the vertical stabiliser, rudder, and circular fuselage sections of the A300-600, extended by two barrel sections.

Airbus briefly considered the variable camber wing, a concept that requires changing the wing profile for a given phase of flight. Studies were carried out by British Aerospace (BAe), now part of BAE Systems, at Hatfield and Bristol. Airbus estimated this would yield a two per cent improvement in aerodynamic efficiency, but the feature was rejected because of cost and difficulty of development. A true laminar flow wing (a low-drag shape that improves fuel efficiency) was also considered but rejected.

With necessary funding available, the Airbus Supervisory Board approved the development of the A330 and A340 with potential customers on 27 January 1986. Its chairman Franz Josef Strauß stated afterwards that “Airbus Industrie is now in a position to finalise the detailed technical definition of the TA9, which is now officially designated the A330, and the TA11, now called the A340, with potential launch customer airlines, and to discuss with them the terms and conditions for launch commitments”. The designations were originally reversed and were switched so the quad-jet airliner would have a “4” in its name. Airbus hoped for five airlines to sign for both the A330 and A340, and on 12 May sent sale proposals to the most likely candidates, including Lufthansa and Swissair.

Engines

From the beginning of the TA9’s development, a choice of engines from the three major engine manufacturers, Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney, and GE Aviation, was planned.

GE Aviation first offered the General Electric CF6-80C2. However, later studies indicated that more thrust was needed to increase the initial power capability from 267 to 289 kN (60,000 to 65,000 lbf). GE enlarged the CF6-80C2 fan from 236 to 244 centimetres (92.9 to 96.1 in) to create the CF6-80E1, giving a new thrust output of 300–320 kN (67,000–72,000 lbf).

Rolls-Royce initially wanted to use the 267 kN (60,000 lbf) Trent 600 to power Airbus’s newest twinjet and the upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-11. However, the company later agreed to develop an engine solely for the A330, the Trent 700, with a larger diameter and 311 kN (69,900 lbf) of thrust. The A330 was the first Airbus aircraft on which Rolls-Royce supplied engines.

Similarly, Pratt & Whitney signed an agreement that covered the development of the A330-only PW4168. The company increased the fan size to augment power, enabling the engine to deliver 311 kN (69,900 lbf) of thrust.

Production and testing

In preparation for the production of the A330 and A340, Airbus’s partners invested heavily in new facilities. In England, BAe made a £7 million investment in a three-storey technical centre with 15,000 m2(161,000 sq ft) of floor area at Filton. BAe also spent £5 million on a new production line at its Broughton wing production plant. In Germany, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) invested DM400 million ($225 million) on manufacturing facilities in the Weser estuary, including at Bremen, Einswarden, Varel, and Hamburg. France saw the biggest investments, with Aérospatiale constructing a new Fr.2.5 billion ($411 million) final-assembly plant adjacent to Toulouse-Blagnac Airport in Colomiers; by November 1988, the pillars for the new Clément Ader assembly hall had been erected. The assembly process featured increased automation, such as robots drilling holes and installing fasteners during the wing-to-fuselage mating process.

View from the air. Runway to the left and bottom. To the right long buildings and lots of aircraft.

Final assembly area for the A330, next to Toulouse-Blagnac Airport

On 12 March 1987, Airbus received the first orders for the twinjet. The domestic French airline Air Inter placed five firm orders and fifteen options, while Thai Airways International requested eight aircraft, split evenly between firm orders and options. Airbus announced the next day that it would formally launch the A330 and A340 programmes by April 1987, with deliveries of the A340 to begin in May 1992 and A330 deliveries to start in 1993. Northwest Airlines signed a letter of intent for twenty A340s and ten A330s on 31 March.

BAe eventually received £450 million of funding from the UK government, well short of the £750 million it had originally requested for the design and construction of the wings. The German and French governments also provided funding. Airbus issued subcontracts to companies in Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Greece, Italy, India, Japan, South Korea, Portugal, the United States, and the former Yugoslavia. With funding in place, Airbus launched the A330 and A340 programmes on 5 June 1987, just prior to the Paris Air Show. At that time, the order book stood at 130 aircraft from ten customers, including lessor International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC). Of the order total, forty-one were for A330s. In 1989, Asian carrier Cathay Pacific joined the list of purchasers, ordering nine A330s and later increasing this number to eleven.

The wing-to-fuselage mating of the first A330, the tenth airframe of the A330 and A340 line, began in mid-February 1992. This aircraft, coated with anti-corrosion paint, was rolled out on 31 March without its General Electric CF6-80E1 engines, which were installed by August. During a static test, the wing failed just below requirement; BAe engineers later resolved the problem. At the 1992 Farnborough Airshow, Northwest deferred delivery of sixteen A330s to 1994, following the cancellation of its A340 orders.

A330-300 interior, economy class

The first completed A330 was rolled out on 14 October 1992, with the maiden flight following on 2 November. Weighing 181,840 kg (401,000 lb), including 20,980 kg (46,300 lb) of test equipment, the A330 became the biggest twinjet to have flown, until the later first flight of the Boeing 777. The flight lasted five hours and fifteen minutes during which speed, height, and other flight configurations were tested. Airbus intended the test flight programme to comprise six aircraft flying a total of 1,800 hours. On 21 October 1993, the Airbus A330 received the European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifications simultaneously after 1,114 cumulative airborne test hours and 426 test flights. At the same time, weight tests came in favourable, showing the plane was 500 kg (1,100 lb) under weight.

On 30 June 1994, a fatal crash occurred during certification of the Pratt & Whitney engine when an A330 crashed near Toulouse. Both pilots and the five passengers died. The flight was designed to test autopilot response during a one-engine-off worst-case scenario with the centre of gravity near its aft limit. Shortly after takeoff, the pilots had difficulty setting the autopilot, and the aircraft lost speed and crashed. An investigation by an internal branch of Direction Generale d’Aviation concluded that the accident resulted from slow response and incorrect actions by the crew during the recovery. This led to a revision of A330 operating procedures.

Entry into service

Launch operator Air Inter A330-300: two engines instead of four and the absence of a centre-line wheel bogieare the main differences with the A340

Air Inter became the first operator of the A330, putting the aircraft into service on 17 January 1994 between Orly Airport, Paris, and Marseille. Deliveries to Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and Thai Airways International were postponed to address delamination of the composite materials in the PW4168 engine’s thrust reverser assembly. Thai Airways received its first A330 during the second half of the year, operating it on routes from Bangkok to Taipei and Seoul.[49][50] Cathay Pacific received its Trent 700 A330s following the certification of that engine on 22 December 1994. MAS received its A330 on 1 February 1995 and then rescheduled its other ten orders.

Airbus intended the A330 to compete in the Extended-range Twin-engine Operation Performance Standards (ETOPS) market, specifically with the Boeing 767. (ETOPS is a standard that allows longer range flights away from a diversion airport for aircraft that have met special design and testing standards.) Instead of the “ETOPS out of the box” or “Early ETOPS” approach taken by Boeing with its 777, Airbus gradually increased ETOPS approval on the A330 using in-service experience. Airbus suggested that the A340 and A330 were essentially identical except for their engine number, and that the A340’s experience could be applied to the A330’s ETOPS approval. The plans were for all three engine types to enter service with 90-minute approval, before increasing to 120 minutes after the total A330 fleet accumulated 25,000 flight hours, and then to 180 minutes after 50,000 flight hours, in 1995. Aer Lingus and Cathay Pacific were two important airlines assisting Airbus in this endeavour by building up in-service flight hours on over-ocean flights. In November 2009, the A330 became the first aircraft to receive ETOPS–240 approval, which has since been offered by Airbus as an option.

Further developments

In response to a decline in A330-300 sales, increased market penetration by the Boeing 767-300ER, and airline requests for increased range and smaller aircraft, Airbus developed the Airbus A330-200.Known as the A329 and A330M10 during development, the A330-200 would offer nine per cent lower operating costs than the Boeing 767-300ER. The plane was aimed at the 11,900 km (6,430 nmi; 7,390 mi) sector, where Airbus predicted demand for 800 aircraft between 1995 and 2015. The project, with US$450 million in expected development costs, was approved by the Airbus Industrie Supervisory Board on 24 November 1995.

A Middle East Airlines A330-243 landing at London Heathrow Airport in 2016

The A330-200 first flew on 13 August 1997. The sixteen-month certification process involved logging 630 hours of test flights. The A330-200’s first customer was ILFC; these aircraft were leased by Canada 3000, who became the type’s first operator.

As Airbus worked on its A330-200, hydraulic pump problems were reported by both A330 and A340 operators. This issue was the suspected cause of a fire that destroyed an Air France A340-200 in January 1994. On 4 January of that year, a Malaysia Airlines A330-300, while undergoing regular maintenance at Singapore Changi Airport, was consumed by a fire that started in the right-hand main undercarriage well. The incident caused US$30 million in damage, and the aircraft took six months to repair. Consequently, operators were advised to disable electrical pumps in January 1997.

Several in-flight shutdowns of Trent 700–powered A330-300s occurred. On 11 November 1996, engine failure on a Cathay Pacific flight forced it back to Ho Chi Minh City. On 17 April 1997, Cathay Pacific’s subsidiary Dragonair experienced an engine shutdown on an A330, caused by carbon clogging the oil filter. As a result, Cathay Pacific self-suspended its 120-minute ETOPS clearance. Another engine failure occurred on 6 May during climbout with a Cathay Pacific A330, due to a bearing failure in a Hispano-Suiza-built gearbox. Three days later, a Cathay Pacific A330 on climbout during a Bangkok–Hong Kong flight experienced an oil pressure drop and a resultant engine spool down, forcing a return to Bangkok. The cause was traced to metal contamination in the engine’s master chip. Following a fifth engine failure on 23 May, Cathay Pacific and Dragonair voluntarily grounded their A330 fleets for two weeks, causing major disruption as Cathay’s eleven A330s made up fifteen per cent of its passenger capacity.[64] Rolls-Royce and Hispano-Suiza developed a redesigned lubrication system to resolve the problem.

A A330-200F in Airbus's white and blue livery on display under a partly cloudy but otherwise clear sky. The engine inlets are covered.

The freighter variant, the A330-200F, debuts at the Singapore Airshow2010.

Responding to lagging A300-600F and A310F sales, Airbus began marketing the Airbus A330-200F, a freighter derivative of the A330-200, around 2001. The freighter has a range of 7,400 km (4,000 nmi; 4,600 mi) with a 65 tonnes (140,000 lb) payload, or 5,900 km (3,200 nmi; 3,700 mi) with 70 tonnes (150,000 lb). The plane utilises the same nosegear as the passenger version, however it is attached lower in the fuselage and housed in a distinctive bulbous “blister fairing”. This raises the aircraft’s nose so that the cargo deck is level during loading, as the standard A330’s landing gear results the plane having a nose-down attitude while on the ground.

The A330-200F made its maiden flight on 5 November 2009. This marked the start of a four-month, 180-hour certification programme. JAA and FAA certifications were expected by March the following year although approval by the JAA was delayed until April. The first delivery was subsequently made to the Etihad Airwayscargo division, Etihad Cargo, in July 2010.

Airbus announced in February 2011 that it intended to raise production rates from seven-and-a-half to eight per month to nine per month in 2012, and ten per month in 2013. Production increased to 10 aircraft per month in April 2013, the highest for an Airbus widebody aircraft. In 2012, Airbus expected the A330 to continue selling until at least 2020, with the A350-900 expected to replace the A330-300.

Air China A330-243 taking off from Munich Airport.

On 19 July 2013, Airbus delivered the 1000th A330 to Cathay Pacific. It is the first Airbus wide-body airliner to reach 1,000 deliveries, and the fourth wide-body to achieve the milestone after the Boeing 747, 767 and 777. As of June 2017, a total of 1,475 A330ceos had been ordered, with 1,354 delivered.

On 25 September 2013 at the Aviation Expo China (Beijing Airshow), Airbus announced a new lower weight A330-300 variant, optimised for use on domestic and regional routes in high growth markets with large populations and concentrated traffic flows; China and India were recognised as prime targets. This variant could carry up to 400 passengers. The increased efficiency, however, comes more from the installation of more seats than any weight reduction. On relatively short, yet congested routes, the A330 competes against single-aisle jetliners. While the A330’s operating costs in those conditions is not far above those of the Boeing 737 or Airbus A321, the A320neo and 737 MAX promise more efficiency. Where the frequency of flights cannot be increased, using larger aircraft, such as the A330, is the only available option to increase capacity. The first customer for the A330 regional was announced as Saudia at the 2015 Paris Air Show.

In December 2014, Airbus announced that it would reduce A330 production to nine aircraft per month from ten, because of falling orders. Airbus did not rule out further production cuts. The announcement led to an immediate drop in Airbus Group’s stock price because the company derives a significant percentage of its cash flow and net profit from the A330 program; the A330’s financial impact is magnified amid problems in the A350 and A380 programs. In February 2015, Airbus announced another production rate cut to six aircraft per month beginning in the first quarter of 2016. This extends A330ceo production to July 2017, allowing for a smooth transition to A330neo production, which is set to start in Spring 2017. In February 2016 Airbus announced, that it will re-increase the production rate from 6 to 7 per month, as response to new A330 orders.

A330neo

The A330neo (“neo” for “New Engine Option”) is a development from the initial A330 (now A330ceo – “Current Engine Option”). A new version with modern engines developed for the Boeing 787 was called for by owners of the current A330. It was launched in July 2014 at the Farnborough Airshow, promising 14% better fuel economy per seat. It will use exclusively the larger Rolls-Royce Trent 7000. Its two versions are based on the A330-200 and -300: the -800 should cover 7,500 nmi (13,900 km) with 257 passengers while the -900 should cover 6,550 nmi (12,130 km) with 287 passengers. The -900 should be introduced at the end of 2017.

Design

The undercarriage of an A330 have been retracted, showing an underside view of an A330 during flight. Under each wing is a turbofan engine.

A Cyprus Airways A330-200, showing the long slender wing

The A330 is a medium-size, wide-body airliner, with two engines suspended on pylons under the wings. A two-wheel nose undercarriage and two four-wheel bogie main legs built by Messier-Dowty support the airplane on the ground. Its maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) grew from 212 tonnes (467,000 lb) at introduction to 242 tonnes (534,000 lb) in 2015, enhancing its payload-range performance, with a 0.9 tonnes (1,980 lb) heavier Maximum Ramp Weight (MRW).

The airframe of the A330 features a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a wing virtually identical to that of the A340. On the A330-300 one engine is installed at the inboard pylon while the outboard pylon position is not used, while for the A340-300 both engine pylons are used, which allows the A340-300 wing to able to sustain a higher (wing limited) MTOW. This is as the A340’s two engines at each wing provide a more equal force distribution (engine weight) over the wing, while also the total engine weight counteracting moment is located more outboard with more engine weight located further outboard on the wing, hence the wing root bending moment with equal TOW is less on the A340-300 than on the A330-300. The wings were designed and manufactured by BAe, which developed a long slender wing with a very high aspect ratio to provide high aerodynamic efficiency. The wing is swept back at 30 degrees and, along with other design features, allows a maximum operating Mach number of 0.86. The wing has a very high thickness-to-chord ratio of 12.8 per cent, which means that a long span and high aspect ratio can be attained without a severe weight penalty. For comparison, the rival MD-11 has a thickness-to-chord ratio of 8–9 per cent. Each wing also has a 2.74 m (8.99 ft) tall wingletinstead of the wingtip fences found on earlier Airbus aircraft.

The shared wing design with the A340 allowed the A330 to incorporate aerodynamic features developed for the former aircraft. The failure of International Aero Engines’ radical ultra-high-bypass V2500 “SuperFan”, which had promised around 15 per cent fuel burn reduction for the A340, led to multiple enhancements including wing upgrades to compensate. Originally designed with a 56 m (180 ft) span, the wing was later extended to 58.6 m (190 ft) and finally to 60.3 m (200 ft).At 60.3 m (200 ft), the wingspan is similar to that of the larger Boeing 747–200, but with 35 percent less wing area.

Cockpit of the A330. All instruments and displays are switched on. Two seats occupy both sides of the cockpit, separated by a centre console.

The A330/A340 cockpit used the A320’s six-screen design.

The A330 and A340 fuselage is based on that of the Airbus A300-600, with many common parts, and has the same external and cabin width: 5.64 m (19 ft) and 5.28 m (17 ft). Typical seating arrangements are 2–2–2 six-abreast in business class and 2–4–2 eight-abreast in economy class. The fin, rudder, elevators, horizontal tail plane used as fuel tank, flaps, ailerons and spoilers are made of composite materials, making 10% of the structure weight When necessary, the A330 uses the Honeywell 331–350C auxiliary power unit (APU) to provide pneumatics and electrical power.

The A330 shares the same glass cockpit flight deck layout as the A320 and A340, featuring electronic instrument displays rather than mechanical gauges. Instead of a conventional control yoke, the flight deck features side-stick controls, six main displays, and the Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), which covers navigation and flight displays, as well as the Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM). Apart from the flight deck, the A330 also has the fly-by-wire system common to the A320 family, the A340, the A350, and the A380. It also features three primary and two secondary flight control systems, as well as a flight envelope limit protection system which prevents manoeuvres from exceeding the aircraft’s aerodynamic and structural limits.

Variants

With launch of Airbus A330neo, the existing members of the Airbus A330 family (A330-200, 200F, 300, and MRTT) received the Airbus A330ceo (“current engine option”) name.

A330-300[edit]

A white A330 over water, marked with Cathay Pacific and its logo on the vertical stabiliser, gear extended

The initial variant, an A330-300 of Cathay Pacific, its largest operator

Powered by two General Electric CF6-80E1, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines, the 63.69 m (208 ft 11 in) long −300 has a range of 11,750 km / 6,350 nmi, typically carries 277 passengers with a 440 exit limit and 32 LD3 containers. It received European and American certification on 21 October 1993 after 420 test flights over 1,100 hours. The −300 entered service on 16 January 1994. The A330-300 is based on a stretched A300 fuselage but with new wings, stabilisers and fly-by-wire systems.

In 2010 Airbus offered a new version of the −300 with the maximum gross weight increased by two tonnes to 235 t. This enabled 120 nmi extension of the range as well as 1.2 t increase in payload. In mid-2012, Airbus proposed another increase of the maximum gross weight to 240 t. It is planned to be implemented by mid-2015. This −300 version will have the range extended by 400 nmi and will carry 5 t more payload. It will include engine and aerodynamic improvements reducing its fuel burn by about 2%. In November 2012, it was further announced that the gross weight will increase from 235 t to 242 t, and the range will increase by 500 nmi or 926 km or 575 mi to 6,100 nmi (11,300 km; 7,020 mi). Airbus is also planning to activate the central fuel tank for the first time for the −300 model.

As of June 2017, 782 -300s had been ordered, 703 of which had been delivered, with 683 in operation. The 2015 list price is $253.7 million. The closest competitors have been the Boeing 777-200/200ER, and the now out-of-production McDonnell Douglas MD-11.

A330-300HGW

In 2000, it was reported that Airbus was studying an A330-300 version with a higher gross weight. It was named A330-300HGW and had a takeoff weight of 240 tonnes (530,000 lb), 7 tonnes (15,000 lb) greater than the −300’s weight at the time. The version would have a strengthened wing and additional fuel capacity from a 41,600-litre (11,000 US gal) centre section fuel tank. The A330-300HGW’s range was increased to over 11,000 km (5,940 nmi; 6,840 mi). Among those that showed interest was leasing company ILFC, which sought airliners that could fly from the US West Coast to Europe.

Power was to be supplied by all three engines offered to A330-200 and A330-300 with lower gross weight. Airbus also considered using the new Engine Alliance GP7000 engine for the A330-300HGW, which would have been the engine’s first twinjet application. The −300HGW was to enter airline service in 2004. However, the -300HGW programme was not launched and quietly disappeared.

The 240-tonne A330 reappear years later when Airbus announced at the 2012 Farnborough Airshow that it would be an available option for both the A330-300 and the A330-200. In November 2012, the maximum take off weight was further increased to 242 tonnes; the first of these aircraft was to enter service with Delta Air Lines in Q2 2015.

A330 Regional

In September 2013, Airbus announced a version of the A330-300, named A330 Regional or A330-300 Regional. The A330 Regional have seating for up to around 400 passengers, with reduced engine thrust, reduced maximum takeoff weight of 199 t (439,000 lb) and reduced range of 2,700 nautical miles (5,000 km; 3,110 mi). It is said that the maximum takeoff weight of these aircraft can be “eas[il]y upgrade to 242 t (534,000 lb)”, which is the extended range version with range of 6,350 nmi (11,800 km; 7,310 mi). It is said to provide up to 26% lower operating costs than the longer range version A330-300.

On August 18, 2016, Airbus delivered the first A330 Regional to Saudia.

A330-200

Twin-engine passenger jet with undercarriage almost retracted

The -200 is 4.85 m (15.9 ft) shorter than the -300, China Eastern is its largest operator

The A330-200 is a shortened, longer-range variant, which entered service in 1998 with Korean Air. Typical range with 253 passengers in a three-class configuration is 13,400 km (7,240 nmi; 8,330 mi).The A330-200 is ten fuselage frames shorter than the original −300, with a length of 58.82 m (193 ft 0 in). To compensate for the smaller moment arm of the shorter fuselage, the vertical stabiliser height of the −200 was increased by 104 cm (40.9 in). The −200’s wing was also modified; structural strengthening of the wing allowed the maximum takeoff weight of the −200 to be increased to 229.8 tonnes (507,000 lb). The −200 is offered with three engine types similar to those found on the −300, namely the General Electric CF6-80E, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 700. Airbus also boosted fuel capacity to 139,100 L (36,700 US gal) by adding the centre section fuel tank, standard in the A340.

A new vertical stabilizer was introduced in 2004 beginning with MSN 555. This newer fin is shorter in height by 50 cm (20 in) and was derived from the design of the vertical stabilizer of the A340-500 and -600, later becoming standard on all new A330-200s.

In 2008, Airbus released plans for a higher gross weight version of the A330-200 to more effectively compete against the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The new-build A330-200HGW had a 5 tonne increase in Maximum Takeoff Weight, allowing a 560 kilometres (302 nmi; 348 mi) range increase and a 3.4 tonnes (7,500 lb) payload increase. Korean Air became the first customer on 27 February 2009 with an order for six −200HGWs. Deliveries of the first aircraft started in 2010.

In mid-2012, Airbus proposed another version of the −200 with the maximum gross weight increased by 2 t to 240 t. This version had its range extended by 270 nmi and carried 2.5 t more payload. It saw engine and aerodynamic improvements reducing its fuel burn by about 2%. In November 2012, it was announced that the gross weight was to be further increased to 242 t with the range extended by 350 nmi over the 238 t version. It was certified by the EASA on 8th September 2015 .

As of June 2017, 651 of the −200 had been ordered, 613 of which had been delivered, with 603 aircraft in operation. The 2015 list price is $229 million. The −200 competes with the Boeing 767-300ER and to a lesser extent the 767-400ER as well as with new 787 Dreamliner.

ACJ330

The A330-200 is also available as an ultra-long-range corporate jet as the A330-200 Prestige.

A330-200F

The bulge under the A330-200F nose corrects the inherent nose-down attitude of passenger versions.

The A330-200F is an all-cargo derivative of the A330-200 capable of carrying 65 t (140,000 lb) over 7,400 km (4,000 nmi; 4,600 mi) or 70 tonnes (150,000 lb) up to 5,900 km (3,200 nmi; 3,700 mi). To overcome the standard A330’s nose-down body angle on the ground, the A330F uses a revised nose undercarriage layout to provide a level deck during cargo loading. The normal A330-200 undercarriage is used, but its attachment points are lower in the fuselage, thus requiring a distinctive blister fairing on the nose to accommodate the retracted nose gear. Power is provided by two Pratt & Whitney PW4000 or Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines. General Electric does not plan to offer an engine for the A330-200F.

As of June 2017, Airbus had delivered 38 aircraft with four unfilled orders. The list price is $203.6 million. As well as new-build freighters, Airbus has proposed passenger-to-freighter conversions of existing −200 airliners. The A330-200F is sized between the 767-300F and 777F, but trails both Boeing models in orders and deliveries.

A330 Converted Freighter

In 2012, Airbus announced plans for a passenger-to-freighter program with ST Aerospace. The A330-300 and −200 are to be part of the P2F program with the −300 to come first and the −200 to follow a year later. Conversion work will be done mainly in Dresden, Germany. EgyptAir Cargo was the launch customer for -200 P2F.Qatar Airways has already showed interest in the program. The aircraft is expected to enter service in 2016.

The A330-300P2F variant has a payload of 60 tonnes with the range of 2,200 nautical miles (4,000 km) or 61 tonnes with the range of 3,600 nautical miles (6,600 km) for the higher MTOW variants. The A330-200P2F will carry the payload of up to 59 tons on ranges up to 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km). Airbus estimates the market demand for the conversions at 900 units during the next 20 years.

A330-800neo

The Airbus A330-800neo will retain the fuselage length of the A330-200, with cabin optimisation allowing up to six additional seats. It will feature new Rolls-Royce Trent 7000 engines with a 10:1 bypass delivering 320 kN (72,000 lbf), improved aerodynamics including A350-style winglets increasing the span by 3.7m to 64m, and is scheduled to enter service in early 2018.[141] It should cover 7500 nm (13,900 km) with 257 passengers (406 max).

A330-900neo

The Airbus Airbus A330-900neo will keep the A330-300 fuselage with 10 more seats thanks to cabin optimisation. With the same engine and wing improvements, it should burn 14% less fuel per seat than the A330-300 on a 4,000 nmi flight and is expected to enter service at the end of 2017. It should travel 6550 nm (12,130 km) with 287 passengers (440 max).

Beluga replacement

Airbus has started design of a replacement aircraft for the Beluga in November 2014: the Beluga XL based on the Airbus A330.

Military variants

Airbus A330 MRTT

Crowd of people assembled in front of unpainted aircraft. A tall building serves as the backdrop for the photograph

A team of engineering personnel assembled in front of an A330 MRTT converted from an A330-200 by Iberia Spanish Airlines Maintenance

The Airbus A330 MRTT is the Multi-Role Transport and Tanker (MRTT) version of the A330-200, designed for aerial refuelling and strategic transport. As of November 2014, 46 total orders have been placed for the A330 MRTT by the air forces of Australia, France, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.

EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45

The EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45 was a proposed version of the A330 MRTT for the United States Air Force (USAF)’s KC-X aerial refuelling programme. In February 2008, the USAF selected the aircraft to replace the Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker. The replacement process was mired in controversy, instances of corruption, and allegations of favouritism. In July 2010, EADS submitted a tanker bid to the USAF without Northrop Grumman as a partner. However, on 24 February 2011, the USAF picked the Boeing KC-767 proposal, later named KC-46, as the winner because of its lower cost.

Undeveloped variants

A330-400/600

In 1996 Airbus evaluated a 12-frame stretch which would be able to carry 380 passengers over almost 7,000 km (3,800 nmi), the -400, and a “super-stretch” using the A340-600’s 22-frame stretch and powered by 400 kN (90,000 lbf) engines, the -600.

A330-500

Also known as the A330-100, the A330-500 was a proposed “shrink” of the A330-200 version launched in July 2000 at the Farnborough Airshow, with eight fuselage frames removed – four ahead and four behind the wing. This would allow for the seating of 222 passengers. The −500’s maximum takeoff weight was to be 228 tonnes (503,000 lb), a 5-tonne (11,000 lb) decrease from the A330-200, allowing a range of 12,970 km (7,000 nmi; 8,060 mi). A lighter version, at 195 tonnes (430,000 lb), would have flown up to 8,060 km (4,350 nmi; 5,010 mi).  The aircraft would have had 5 per cent better specific fuel consumption than the A300-600, powered by either the CF6-80G2, PW4000, or the Trent 500.

Prospective customers included ILFC, CIT Aerospace, Lufthansa, and Hapag-Lloyd. The latter two, however, were unimpressed with the long-range variant, preferring a shorter-range aircraft, which was better suited to their route structure. Singapore Airlines was also an expected customer because it was looking for a replacement for the A310. Airbus intended to freeze the design in late 2001, with the first flight scheduled for the third quarter of 2003 and entry into service within a year. The programme was later abandoned, as interest from customers was lacking.

A330-200Lite

To compete with Boeing’s 7E7 (later 787), Airbus offered a minimum-change derivative called the A330-200Lite in 2004. As the name indicated, this proposed variant would have had a lower maximum takeoff weight of 202 tonnes (445,000 lb), coupled with de-rated engines, giving a range of 7,400 km (4,000 nmi; 4,600 mi). It was aimed at Singapore Airlines, who had looked to replace its Airbus A310-300s. The variant was also to be a replacement for Airbus A300-600Rs and early Boeing 767s. Airlines, however, were not satisfied with the compromised aircraft; the company instead proceeded with an entirely new aircraft, the A350 XWB.

Operators

Angled underside view of white twinjet with red "TAM' letters and tail.

TAM Linhas Aereas Airbus A330-200 powered by PW4168

As of June 2017, there are 1,324 examples of all A330 variants in airline service, comprising 603 A330-200s, 38 -200Fs, and 683 -300s. The airline operators are Turkish Airlines (64), Air China (56), China Eastern Airlines (54), Delta Air Lines (42), and other operators with fewer aircraft.

Orders and deliveries

Orders Deliveries
Type Total Backlog Total 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006
A330-200 651 38 613 10 21 30 28 43 37 40 32 38 49 42 39
A330-200F 42 4 38 2 3 3 5 8 8 4 5
A330-300 782 79 703 19 42 70 75 57 56 43 50 38 23 26 23
Total 1,475 121 1,354 31 66 103 108 108 101 87 87 76 72 68 62
Deliveries
2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993
A330-200 29 25 19 36 16 27 40 12
A330-200F
A330-300 27 22 12 6 19 16 4 11 14 10 30 9 1
Total 56 47 31 42 35 43 44 23 14 10 30 9 1

Data through end of June 2017

Accidents and incidents

As of June 2017, the Airbus A330 had been involved in 28 major aviation occurrences, including 11 confirmed hull-loss accidents and two hijackings, for a total of 339 fatalities.

The type’s first fatal accident occurred on 30 June 1994 near Toulouse on a test flight when an Airbus-owned A330-300 crashed while simulating an engine failure on climbout, killing all seven on board. Airbus subsequently advised A330 operators to disconnect the autopilot and limit pitch attitude in the event of an engine failure at low speed.

On 15 March 2000, a Malaysia Airlines A330-300 suffered structural damage due to leaking oxalyl chloride, a corrosive chemical substance that had been improperly labeled before shipping. The aircraft was written off.

The vertical stabilizer recovered from Air France Flight 447

The type’s second fatal accident, and first while in commercial service, occurred on 1 June 2009 when Air France Flight 447, an A330-200 en route from Rio de Janeiroto Paris with 228 people on board, crashed in the Atlantic Ocean 640–800 km (350–430 nmi) northeast of the islands of Fernando de Noronha, with no survivors. Malfunctioning pitot tubes provided an early focus for the investigation, as the aircraft involved had Thales-built “–AA” models known to record faulty airspeed data during icing conditions. In July 2009, Airbus advised A330 and A340 operators to replace Thales pitots with equivalents manufactured by Goodrich. Investigators later determined that the inadequate response of the pilots to both a loss of airspeed data from malfunctioning pitot tubes and subsequent autopilot disengagement resulted in Flight 447 entering into an aerodynamic stall. In 2008, Air Caraïbes reported two incidents of pitot tube icing malfunctions on its A330s.

On 12 May 2010, Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771, an A330-200, crashed on approach to Tripoli International Airport, Libya, on a flight from OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa. Of the 104 people on board, all but one nine-year-old Dutch boy died.[177] The cause of the crash was determined to be pilot error.

The two hijackings involving the A330 have resulted in one fatality, namely the hijacker of Philippine Airlines Flight 812 on 25 May 2000, who jumped out of the aircraft to his death. The hijacking of Sabena Flight 689 on 13 October 2000 ended with no casualties when Spanish police took control of the aircraft. On 24 July 2001, two unoccupied SriLankan Airlines A330s were destroyed amid an attack on Bandaranaike International Airport, in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. On 25 December 2009, passengers and crew subdued a man who attempted to detonate explosives in his underwear on an A330-300 operating Northwest Airlines Flight 253.

Two A330 incidents due to in-flight malfunctions were survived by all on board. On 24 August 2001, Air Transat Flight 236, an A330-200, developed a fuel leak over the Atlantic Ocean due to an incorrectly installed hydraulic part and was forced to glide for over 15 minutes to an emergency landing in the Azores. On 7 October 2008, Qantas Flight 72, an A330-300, suffered a rapid loss of altitude in two sudden uncommanded pitch-down manoeuvres while 150 km (81 nmi) from the RAAF Learmonth air base in northwestern Australia. After declaring an emergency, the crew landed the aircraft safely at Learmonth. It was later determined that the incident, which caused 106 injuries, 14 of them serious, was the result of a design flaw of the plane’s Air Data Inertial Reference Unit and a limitation of the aircraft’s flight computer software.

On 13 April 2010, Cathay Pacific Flight 780 from Surabaya Juanda International Airport to Hong Kong landed safely after both engines failed due to contaminated fuel. 57 passengers were injured. Its two pilots received the Polaris Award from the International Federation of Air Line Pilots’ Associations, for their heroism and airmanship.

On 15 July 2014, a Libyan Airlines A330 was severely damaged in the fighting in Libya and sustained bullet holes in the fuselage. On 20 July 2014, two Afriqiyah Airways Airbus A330 were hit by an RPG at Tripoli International Airport. One was completely destroyed in the ensuing fire.

Specifications

Airbus A330 specifications
Source: Airplane Characteristics – Airport and Maintenance Planning, unless noted
A330-200 A330-200F A330-300
Cockpit crew Two
Capacity 246 (36J @ 60 in + 210Y @ 32 in)
exit limit 375/406
Max Payload: 70,000 kg (154,324 lb) 300 (36J @ 60 in + 264Y @ 32 in)
exit limit 375/440
Length 58.82 m (192.98 ft) 63.67 m (208.89 ft)
Wingspan 60.3 m (197.83 ft)
Wing area 361.6 m² (3,892 ft²)
Aspect ratio 10.06
25% chord wingsweep 30°
Tail height 17.39 m (57 ft 1 in) 16.88 m (55 ft 5 in) 16.83 m (55 ft 3 in)
Cabin width 5.18 m (204 in)
Seat width 0.46 m (18 in) in 8 abreast economy
0.53 m (21 in) in 6 abreast business
Fuselage width 5.64 m (222 in)
Fuselage height 5.64 m (18.5 ft)
Main gear wheel span 12.61 m (41.37 ft)
Usable cargo volume 132.4 m³ (4673 ft³) 469.2 m³ (16567 ft³) 158.4 m³ (5591 ft³)
Maximum takeoff weight 242,000 kg (533,519 lb) 233,000 kg (513,677 lb) 242,000 kg (533,519 lb)
Maximum landing weight 182,000 kg (401,241 lb) 187,000 kg (412,264 lb)
Max zero fuel weight 170,000 kg (374,786 lb) 178,000 kg (392,423 lb) 175,000 kg (385,809 lb)
Usable fuel capacity 139,090 l (36,744 US gal) – 109,185 kg (240,711 lb)
Operating empty weight 120,150 -120,750  kg (264,875-266,200 lb) 108000 kg (238099 lb) 121,870-122,780 kg (268,675-270,675 lb)
Service ceiling 12,500 m (41,100 ft)
Cruise speed Mach 0.82 (470 kn; 871 km/h)
Mach Maximum Operating Speed Mach 0.86 (493 kn; 914 km/h)
Final approach speed (MLW) 136 kn (252 km/h) 139 kn (257 km/h) 137 kn (254 km/h)
Maximum range, fully loaded 13,450 km (7,250 nm) with 247 pax 7,400 km (4,000 nm) 11,750 km (6,350 nm) with 277 pax
Takeoff run (SL, ISA, MTOW) 2,770 m (9,110 ft)
Landing run (SL, ISA, MLW) 1,730 m (5,680 ft)
Engines (×2)[192] 64,530–68,530 lbf (287–305 kN) General Electric CF6-80E1 (except -200F)
64,500–70,000 lbf (287–311 kN) Pratt & Whitney PW4000 PW4164/PW4168/PW4170
67,500–71,100 lbf (300–316 kN) Rolls-Royce Trent 700 768/772

Aircraft model designations

A330 family schematic

EASA Type Certificate Data Sheet
Model Certification Date Engines
A330-201 31 October 2002 General Electric CF6-80E1A2
A330-202 31 March 1998 General Electric CF6-80E1A4
A330-203 20 November 2001 General Electric CF6-80E1A3
A330-223 13 July 1998 Pratt & Whitney PW4168A/4170
A330-223F 9 April 2010 Pratt & Whitney PW4170 (Freighter)
A330-243 11 January 1999 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B/C-60
A330-243F 9 April 2010 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B-60 (Freighter)
A330-301 21 October 1993 General Electric CF6-80E1A2
A330-302 17 May 2004 General Electric CF6-80E1A4
A330-303 17 May 2004 General Electric CF6-80E1A3
A330-321 2 June 1994 Pratt & Whitney PW4164
A330-322 2 June 1994 Pratt & Whitney PW4168
A330-323 22 April 1999 Pratt & Whitney PW4168A/4170
A330-341 22 December 1994 Rolls-Royce Trent 768-60
A330-342 22 December 1994 Rolls-Royce Trent 772-60
A330-343 13 September 1999 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B/C-60

ICAO Aircraft Type Designators

Designation Type
A332 Airbus A330-200, Airbus A330-200F
A333 Airbus A330-300
Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first Ilyushin Il-76 for “ Mehrabad ” Airport Base

Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first Ilyushin Il-76 for “ Mehrabad ” Airport Base

The Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union’s Ilyushin design bureau. It was first planned as a commercial freighter in 1967, as a replacement for the Antonov An-12. It was designed to deliver heavy machinery to remote, poorly served areas. Military versions of the Il-76 have been widely used in Europe, Asia and Africa, including use as an aerial refueling tanker or command center.

The Il-76 has seen extensive service as a commercial freighter for ramp-delivered cargo, especially for outsized or heavy items unable to be otherwise carried. It has also been used as an emergency response transport for civilian evacuations as well as for humanitarian aid and disaster relief around the world. Because of its ability to operate from unpaved runways, it has been useful in undeveloped areas. Specialized models have also been produced for aerial firefighting and zero-G training.

Origins

The aircraft was first conceived by Ilyushin in 1967 to meet a requirement for a freighter able to carry a payload of 40 tons (88,000 lb) over a range of 5,000 km (2,700 nmi; 3,100 mi) in less than six hours, able to operate from short and unprepared airstrips, and capable of coping with the worst weather conditions likely to be experienced in Siberia and the Soviet Union’s Arctic regions. It was intended to replace the An-12. Another intended version was a double-decked 250-passenger airliner but that project was cancelled. The Il-76 first flew on March 1971.

Il-76TD, one of the first variants, at Zurich Airport

Production of Il-76s was allocated to the Tashkent Aviation Production Association in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, then a republic of the Soviet Union. Some 860 of the basic transport variants were manufactured. In the 1990s, modernized variants also equipped with Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines, were developed (MF, TF), with a cargo compartment 20 m long by 3.4 m wide by 3.4 m tall; these larger variants were not produced in significant quantity due to the financial difficulties being experienced by the Russian Air Force, which was the primary operator of the type. The prototype of the Il-76MF, conducted its first flight on 1 August 1995. All production operations ceased during the late 1990s.

Further development

From 2004 onwards, a number of aircraft in commercial service were modernized to the Il-76TD-90VD version; this involved the adoption of the newly developed PS-90 engine to comply with European noise limitations.[1] In 2005, the Peoples Republic of China placed an order for 34 new Il-76MDs and four Il-78 tankers.[citation needed] In June 2013, Russian military export agency Rosoboronexport announced an order by China for 12 Il-76MD aircraft.

Landing gear of Ilushin Il-76

The Il-76 has also been modified into an airborne refuelling tanker, designated the Il-78, around 50 aircraft having been produced. A variant of the Il-76 also serves as a firefighting waterbomber. Its airframe was used as a base for the Beriev A-50 ‘Mainstay’ AEW&C (airborne early warning and control) aircraft; around 25 aircraft were made. Another application for the type was found in Antarctic support flights and for conducting simulated weightlessness training for cosmonauts. Beriev and NPO Almaz also developed an airborne laser flying laboratory designated A-60, of which two were built, much of this project’s details remaining classified.

Il-76MD-90A

It was announced in 2010 that the production of a modernized Il-76, the Il-76MD-90A (also known as project Il-476 during the design stage), would begin; a proposed new production line would be located in Aviastar’s facility in Ulyanovsk, Russia, and be operated in cooperation with the Tashkent works.[5] At that point, the construction of two Il-76MD-90A prototypes had begun at the Ulyanovsk facility.[9] The 1st serial production Il-76MD-90A was rolled out at Aviastar’s Ulyanovsk plant on 16 June 2014. On 29 April 2015, it was reported that the Russian Air Force received the first Il-76MD-90A built at the Ulyanovsk plant “Aviastar-SP” from the 2012 contract for 39 aircraft.

Operational history

First aircraft were delivered to the Soviet Air Force in June 1974. Next it became the main Soviet strategic transport aircraft. From 1976 it was operated by Aeroflot.

Between 1979 and 1991, the Soviet Air Force Il-76s made 14,700 flights into Afghanistan, transporting 786,200 servicemen, and 315,800 tons of freight. The Il-76 carried 89% of Soviet troops and 74% of the freight that was airlifted. As Afghan rebels were unable to shoot down high-flying Il-76s, their tactics were to try and damage it on takeoff or landing. Il-76s were often hit by shoulder-launched Stinger and Strela heat-seeking missiles and large-calibre machine gun fire, but because the strong airframes were able to take substantial damage and still remain operational, the aircraft had a remarkably low attrition rate during this period of conflict. Building on that experience, the bulk of the Canadian Forces equipment into Afghanistan was flown in using civilian Il-76. In 2006, the Russian Air Force had about 200 Il-76s. Civilian users in Russia have 108.

On August 3, 1995, a Il-76 piloted by a Russian crew was forced down by a Taliban fighter plane sparking the Airstan incident.

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an Indian Il-76.

In 2004, a Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Il-76 carried out a flight mission in Afghanistan, and later in 2011, PLAAF Il-76s were sent to Libya to evacuate Chinese citizens. The two missions were reported first steps of PLAAF developing long-range transportation capacity.

On 23 March 2007, a Transaviaexport Il-76 was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile while taking off from Mogadishu, Somalia. Everybody on board, seven crew and four passengers, were killed.

Syrian Air Force Il-76s, operating as civil Syrianair aircraft have been reportedly used to ship weapons, money and other cargo from Russia and Iran to Syria, according to a defected Syrian military pilot. Since the start of the war, in April 2011 (and up to July 2012), around 20 military flights have been conducted to and from Tehran, via Iraqi airspace. Further information exposes that since around 2012, Syrian Il-76s have regularly flown to Moscow’s Vnukovo Airport to fetch shipments of Syrian banknotes that have been useful to Bashar al-Assad’s government to survive western sanctions.

On 14 June 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force Il-76 was shot down by ground fire from pro-Russian separatists while on approach to landing at Lugansk, resulting in the deaths of 40 soldiers and nine crew members on board.

On 30 January 2017, IL-76 firebomber of Russian EMERCOM agency was deployed to Chile to assist the firefighters. This assignment took 39 days.

Prototypes and developmental variants

Il-76TD-90 / Il-76MD-90
Engine upgrades to Perm PS-90s.
Il-76 firebomber
Firefighting aircraft to drop exploding capsules filled with fire retardant.
Il-76PSD
SAR version of Il-76MF
Il-96
Early development of convertible passenger/cargo aircraft, (project only, designation re-used later)
Il-150
proposed Beriev A-50 with Perm PS-90 engines.
Beriev A-60
Airborne laser weapon testbed. (Il-76 version 1A)

Special purpose / research variants

Izdeliye-176
prototype Il-76PP.
Izdeliye-576
Izdeliye-676
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-776
Telemetry and communications relay aircraft, for use during trial programmes (prototype).
Izdeliye-976 (“SKIP”)[24] – (СКИП – Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center)
Il-76/A-50 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests.
Izdeliye-1076
Special mission aircraft for unknown duties.
Izdeliye-1176
ELINT electronic intelligence aircraft, or Il-76-11

Military variants

Il-76TD glass nose

Il-76MD cargo cabin

aircraft engines testbed
Il-76-Tu160 tailplane transporter
One-off temporary conversion to support Tu-160 emergency modification programme.
Il-76D
(‘D’ for “Desantnyi”, Десантный – “Paratrooper transport”) has a gun turret in the tail for defensive purposes.
Il-76K/Il-76MDK/Il-76MDK-II
Zero-g cosmonaut trainer (dlya podgotovki kosmonavtov), for Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center.
Il-76LL
Engine testbed, (ooniversahl’naya letayuschchaya laboratoriya).
Il-76M
Military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy – modified).
Il-76MD
Improved military transport version, (modifitseerovannyy Dahl’ny – modified, long-range).
Il-76MD Skal’pel-MT
– Mobile Hospital
Il-76M / Il-76MD
Built without military equipment but designated as Ms and MDs (Gordon – ‘Falsies’)
Il-76MD-90
An Il-76MD with quieter and more economical Aviadvigatel PS-90 high-bypass turbofan engines.
Il-76MF
Stretched military version with a 6.6 m longer fuselage, PS-90 engines, maximum takeoff weight of 210 tonnes and a lift capability of 60 tonnes. First flew in 1995, not built in series so far,[1] just built for Jordan.
Il-76PP
ECM aircraft, major problems with ECM equipment on the Izdeliye-176 only.
Il-76MD-M
modernized Il-76MD for the Russian Air Force.[25]
Il-76MD-90A
An updated version with a new glass cockpit, updated avionics, new internal wing structure and Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It was also known as Il-476 while in development.[26][27]
Il-76T/Il-76TD
Built as military aircraft but given civilian designations. (Gordon – ‘Falsie’)
Ilyushin Il-78 / Il-78M
Aerial refuelling tanker.
Il-78 MKI
A customized version of the Il-78 developed for the Indian Air Force.
Il-82
Airborne Command Post/communications relay aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76VKP-‘version65S’).
Il-84
Maritime Search and Rescue aircraft, (alternative designation – Il-76PS-poiskovo-spasahtel’nyy), not produced.
Beriev A-50/Beriev A-50M/Beriev A-50I/Beriev A-50E
– Airborne Early Warning & Control aircraft. Beriev given control over the program.
Beriev A-100
An AEW&C version of the Il-76MD-90A.

Civil variants

A commercial variant of the Ilyushin Il-76, loading cargo at Ali Air Base, Iraq.

An Il-76TD belonging to the IRGC, used as a firefighting aircraft.
Il-76MGA
Initial Commercial freighter. (two prototypes and 12 production) equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.
Il-76MD to Il-76TD conversions
Complete removal of Military equipment, identified by crude cover over OBIGGS inlet in Starboard Sponson.
Il-76P / Il-76TP / Il-76TDP / Il-76MDP
Firefighting aircraft. The Il-76 waterbomber is a VAP-2 1.5 hour install/removal tanking kit conversion. The Il-76 can carry up to 13,000 U.S. gallons (49,000 liters) of water; 3.5 times the capacity of the C-130 Hercules. Since this kit can be installed on any Il-76, the designation Il-76TP, Il-76TDP are also used when those versions of the Il-76 are converted into waterbombers. The Il-76P was first unveiled in 1990.
Il-76T
(‘T’ for Transport, Транспортный) unarmed civil cargo transport version. NATO code-name “Candid-A”. It first flew on November 4, 1978.
Il-76TD
The civil equivalent of the Il-76MD, first flew in 1982, equipped with Soloviev D-30 Turbofan engines.
Il-76TD-90VD
An Il-76TD with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines and a partial glass cockpit. It was developed specially for Volga-Dnepr cargo company, which operates four aircraft as of 2012.
Il-76TD-S
Civilian mobile Hospital, similar to Il-76MD Skal’pel-MT.
Il-76TF
Civil transport stretched version with Aviadvigatel PS-90 engines. It is the civil version of the Il-76MF (none produced).

Foreign variants

The A-50E/I Mainstay of the Indian Air Force
Beriev A-50E/I
Iraqi Air Force tanker conversions.
KJ-2000
Domestic Chinese airborne early warning and control conversion of Il-76, developed after A-50I was cancelled and currently in service with the armed forces of China.
CFTE engine testbed
The China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) currently operates a flying testbed converted from a Russian-made Il-76MD jet transport aircraft to serve as a flying testbed for future engine development programmes. The first engine to be tested on the aircraft is the WS-10A “Taihang” turbofan, currently being developed as the powerplant for China’s indigenous J-10 and J-11 fighter aircraft. Il-76MD #76456, acquired by the AVIC 1 from Russia in the 1990s, is currently based at CFTE’s flight test facility at Yanliang, Shaanxi Province.
Baghdad-1
Iraqi development with a radar mounted in the cargo hold, used in the Iran-Iraq war.
Baghdad-2
Iraqi development (with French assistance) with fibreglass-reinforced plastic radome over the antenna of the Thomson-CSF Tiger G surveillance radar with a maximum detection range of 350 km (189 nmi, 217.5 mi). One was destroyed on the ground during the 1991 Persian Gulf War; two others were flown to Iran where they remained. At least one went into service with the IRIAF. One aircraft crashed following a midair collision with a HESA Saeqeh fighter, during the annual, Iranian military parade in Teheran. It can be distinguished from the Beriev A-50 by having the Il-76 navigator windows in the nose, which the A-50 does not.
Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first Boeing 767 for “ Adelaide ” Airport Base

Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first Boeing 767 for “ Adelaide ” Airport Base

The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was Boeing’s first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft has two turbofan engines, a conventional tail, and, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than earlier aircraft such as the 747, the 767 has seating capacity for 181 to 375 people, and a design range of 3,850 to 6,385 nautical miles (7,130 to 11,825 km), depending on variant. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 757, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate both aircraft.

The 767 is produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and the 767-400ER, an extended-range (ER) variant, in 2000. The extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered service in 1984 and 1988, respectively, while a production freighter version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995. Conversion programs have modified passenger 767-200 and 767-300 series aircraft for cargo use, while military derivatives include the E-767 surveillance aircraft, the KC-767 and KC-46 aerial tankers, and VIP transports. Engines featured on the 767 include the General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000, and Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans.

United Airlines first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982. The aircraft was initially flown on domestic and transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twinjet design. In 1985, the 767 became the first twin-engined airliner to receive regulatory approval for extended overseas flights. The aircraft was then used to expand non-stop service on medium- to long-haul intercontinental routes. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767, ultimately leading to the development of the 777, a larger wide-body twinjet. In the 1990s, the 767 became the most frequently used airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.

The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered. As of February 2017, Boeing has received 1,204 orders for the 767 from 74 customers; 1,097 have been delivered. A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2016; the most popular variant is the 767-300ER, with 583 delivered; Delta Air Lines is the largest operator, with 91 aircraft. Competitors have included the Airbus A300, A310, and A330-200, while a successor, the 787 Dreamliner, entered service in October 2011. Despite this, the 767 still remains in production.

Background

In 1970, Boeing’s 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service. The 747 was the first passenger jet that was wide enough to feature a twin-aisle cabin. Two years later, the manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707 and other early generation narrow-body jets.[5][6] The aircraft would also provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-bodies. To defray the high cost of development, Boeing signed risk-sharing agreements with Italian corporation Aeritalia and the Civil Transport Development Corporation (CTDC), a consortium of Japanese aerospace companies.[7] This marked the manufacturer’s first major international joint venture, and both Aeritalia and the CTDC received supply contracts in return for their early participation. The initial 7X7 was conceived as a short take-off and landing airliner intended for short-distance flights, but customers were unenthusiastic about the concept, leading to its redefinition as a mid-size, transcontinental-range airliner. At this stage the proposed aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-tail.

Side view of twin-engine jet touching down on runway, with deployed flaps and thrust reversers.

The 7X7 would make its Farnborough Airshow debut in 1982 as the 767-200.

By 1976, a twinjet layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300, became the baseline configuration. The decision to use two engines reflected increased industry confidence in the reliability and economics of new-generation jet powerplants. While airline requirements for new wide-body aircraft remained ambiguous, the 7X7 was generally focused on mid-size, high-density markets. As such, it was intended to transport large numbers of passengers between major cities. Advancements in civil aerospace technology, including high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck systems, aerodynamic improvements, and lighter construction materials were to be applied to the 7X7. Many of these features were also included in a parallel development effort for a new mid-size narrow-body airliner, code-named 7N7, which would become the 757. Work on both proposals proceeded through the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s.

In January 1978, Boeing announced a major extension of its Everett factory—which was then dedicated to the manufacture of the 747—to accommodate its new wide-body family. In February 1978, the new jetliner received the 767 model designation, and three variants were planned: a 767-100 with 190 seats, a 767-200 with 210 seats, and a trijet 767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental routes. The 767MR/LR was subsequently renamed 777 for differentiation purposes. The 767 was officially launched on July 14, 1978, when United Airlines ordered 30 of the 767-200 variant, followed by 50 more 767-200 orders from American Airlines and Delta Air Lines later that year. The 767-100 was ultimately not offered for sale, as its capacity was too close to the 757’s seating, while the 777 trijet was eventually dropped in favor of standardizing around the twinjet configuration.

Design effort

In the late 1970s, operating cost replaced capacity as the primary factor in airliner purchases. As a result, the 767’s design process emphasized fuel efficiency from the outset. Boeing targeted a 20 to 30 percent cost saving over earlier aircraft, mainly through new engine and wing technology. As development progressed, engineers used computer-aided design for over one-third of the 767’s design drawings, and performed 26,000 hours of wind tunnel tests. Design work occurred concurrently with the 757 twinjet, leading Boeing to treat both as almost one program to reduce risk and cost. Both aircraft would ultimately receive shared design features, including avionics, flight management systems, instruments, and handling characteristics. Combined development costs were estimated at $3.5 to $4 billion.

Forward view of aircraft, showing fuselage profile, two circular engines.

Forward view of a Continental Airlines 767-400ER, showing fuselage profile, wing dihedral, and CF6 engines

Early 767 customers were given the choice of Pratt & Whitney JT9D or General Electric CF6 turbofans, marking the first time that Boeing had offered more than one engine option at the launch of a new airliner. Both jet engine models had a maximum output of 48,000 pounds-force (210 kN) of thrust. The engines were mounted approximately one-third the length of the wing from the fuselage, similar to previous wide-body trijets. The larger wings were designed using an aft-loaded shape which reduced aerodynamic drag and distributed lift more evenly across their surface span than any of the manufacturer’s previous aircraft. The wings provided higher-altitude cruise performance, added fuel capacity, and expansion room for future stretched variants. The initial 767-200 was designed for sufficient range to fly across North America or across the northern Atlantic, and would be capable of operating routes up to 3,850 nautical miles (7,130 km).

The 767’s fuselage width was set midway between that of the 707 and the 747 at 16.5 feet (5.03 m). While it was narrower than previous wide-body designs, seven abreast seating with two aisles could be fitted, and the reduced width produced less aerodynamic drag. However, the fuselage was not wide enough to accommodate two standard LD3 wide-body unit load devices side-by-side. As a result, a smaller container, the LD2, was created specifically for the 767. The adoption of a conventional tail design also allowed the rear fuselage to be tapered over a shorter section, providing for parallel aisles along the full length of the passenger cabin, and eliminating irregular seat rows toward the rear of the aircraft.

A cockpit of the 767-300ER, which exhibits a hybrid adoption of a new-generation instrument panel and analog gauges and indicators.

The original two-crew 767 glass cockpit
A cockpit of the 767-300F belonging to FedEx Express, which exhibits the complete removal of anolog gauges and larger screens.

The newer style two-crew 767 glass cockpit with larger screens

The 767 was the first Boeing wide-body to be designed with a two-crew digital glass cockpit. Cathode ray tube (CRT) color displays and new electronics replaced the role of the flight engineer by enabling the pilot and co-pilot to monitor aircraft systems directly. Despite the promise of reduced crew costs, United Airlines initially demanded a conventional three-person cockpit, citing concerns about the risks associated with introducing a new aircraft. The carrier maintained this position until July 1981, when a U.S. presidential task force determined that a crew of two was safe for operating wide-body jets. A three-crew cockpit remained as an option and was fitted to the first production models. Ansett Australia ordered 767s with three-crew cockpits due to union demands; it was the only airline to operate 767s so configured. The 767’s two-crew cockpit was also applied to the 757, allowing pilots to operate both aircraft after a short conversion course, and adding incentive for airlines to purchase both types. The 767 and the 757 fly completely different; The 757’s controls are very heavy, similar to the 727 and 747 and the control yoke moves 90 degrees in each direction maximum. The 767 has far lighter control feel in pitch and roll, and the control yoke has approximately 2/3 the travel.

Production and testing

To produce the 767, Boeing formed a network of subcontractors which included domestic suppliers and international contributions from Italy’s Aeritalia and Japan’s CTDC. The wings and cabin floor were produced in-house, while Aeritalia provided control surfaces, Boeing Vertol made the leading edge for the wings, and Boeing Wichita produced the forward fuselage. The CTDC provided multiple assemblies through its constituent companies, namely Fuji Heavy Industries (wing fairings and gear doors), Kawasaki Heavy Industries (center fuselage), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (rear fuselage, doors, and tail). Components were integrated during final assembly at the Everett factory. For expedited production of wing spars, the main structural member of aircraft wings, the Everett factory received robotic machinery to automate the process of drilling holes and inserting fasteners. This method of wing construction expanded on techniques developed for the 747. Final assembly of the first aircraft began in July 1979.

Airplane assembly hall, featuring an unpainted metallic twin-jet aircraft, a presentation podium, and arranged audience chairs.

Final assembly of a 767-300F at Boeing’s Everett factory, which was expanded for 767 production in 1978

The prototype aircraft, registered N767BA and equipped with JT9D turbofans, rolled out on August 4, 1981. By this time, the 767 program had accumulated 173 firm orders from 17 customers, including Air Canada, All Nippon Airways, Britannia Airways, Transbrasil, and Trans World Airlines (TWA). On September 26, 1981, the prototype took its maiden flight under the command of company test pilots Tommy Edmonds, Lew Wallick, and John Brit. The maiden flight was largely uneventful, save for the inability to retract the landing gear because of a hydraulic fluid leak. The prototype was used for subsequent flight tests.

The 10-month 767 flight test program utilized the first six aircraft built. The first four aircraft were equipped with JT9D engines, while the fifth and sixth were fitted with CF6 engines. The test fleet was largely used to evaluate avionics, flight systems, handling, and performance, while the sixth aircraft was used for route-proving flights. During testing, pilots described the 767 as generally easy to fly, with its maneuverability unencumbered by the bulkiness associated with larger wide-body jets. Following the successful completion of 1,600 hours of flight tests, the JT9D-powered 767-200 received certification from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) in July 1982. The first delivery occurred on August 19, 1982, to United Airlines. The CF6-powered 767-200 received certification in September 1982, followed by the first delivery to Delta Air Lines on October 25, 1982.

Service entry and operations

The 767 entered service with United Airlines on September 8, 1982.[37] The aircraft’s first commercial flight used a JT9D-powered 767-200 on the Chicago-to-Denver route.[37] The CF6-powered 767-200 commenced service three months later with Delta Air Lines.[3] Upon delivery, early 767s were mainly deployed on domestic routes, including U.S. transcontinental services.[38] American Airlines and TWA began flying the 767-200 in late 1982, while Air Canada, China Airlines, and El Al began operating the aircraft in 1983.[39] The aircraft’s introduction was relatively smooth, with few operational glitches and greater dispatch reliability than prior jetliners.[40] In its first year, the 767 logged a 96.1 percent rate of takeoff without delay due to technical issues, which exceeded the industry average for new aircraft.[40] Operators reported generally favorable ratings for the twinjet’s sound levels, interior comfort, and economic performance.[40] Resolved issues were minor and included the recalibration of a leading edge sensor to prevent false readings, the replacement of an evacuation slide latch, and the repair of a tailplane pivot to match production specifications.[40]

Boeing twin engine jetliner in flight near a snow-capped mountain

The first 767-200 built, N767BA, in flight near Mount Rainier in the 1980s.

Seeking to capitalize on its new wide-body’s potential for growth, Boeing offered an extended-range model, the 767-200ER, in its first year of service.[41] Ethiopian Airlines placed the first order for the type in December 1982.[41][42] Featuring increased gross weight specifications and greater fuel capacity, the extended-range model could carry heavier payloads at distances up to 6,385 nautical miles (11,825 km),[43] and was targeted at overseas customers.[9] The 767-200ER entered service with El Al on March 27, 1984.[42] The type was mainly ordered by international airlines operating medium-traffic, long-distance flights.[9]

In the mid-1980s, the 767 spearheaded the growth of twinjet flights across the northern Atlantic under extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations, the FAA’s safety rules governing transoceanic flights by aircraft with two engines.[41] Before the 767, over-water flight paths of twinjets could be no more than 90 minutes away from diversion airports.[44] In May 1985, the FAA granted its first approval for 120-minute ETOPS flights to 767 operators, on an individual airline basis starting with TWA, provided that the operator met flight safety criteria.[44] This allowed the aircraft to fly overseas routes at up to two hours’ distance from land.[44] The larger safety margins were permitted because of the improved reliability demonstrated by the twinjet and its turbofan engines.[44] The FAA lengthened the ETOPS time to 180 minutes for CF6-powered 767s in 1989, making the type the first to be certified under the longer duration,[38] and all available engines received approval by 1993.[45] Regulatory approval spurred the expansion of transoceanic 767 flights and boosted the aircraft’s sales.[41][46]

Stretched derivatives

Forecasting airline interest in larger-capacity models, Boeing announced the stretched 767-300 in 1983 and the extended-range 767-300ER in 1984.[41][47] Both models offered a 20 percent passenger capacity increase,[24] while the extended-range version was capable of operating flights up to 5,990 nautical miles (11,090 km).[48] Japan Airlines placed the first order for the 767-300 in September 1983.[41] Following its first flight on January 30, 1986,[47] the type entered service with Japan Airlines on October 20, 1986.[42] The 767-300ER completed its first flight on December 9, 1986,[42] but it was not until March 1987 that the first firm order, from American Airlines, was placed.[47] The type entered service with American Airlines on March 3, 1988.[42] The 767-300 and 767-300ER gained popularity after entering service, and came to account for approximately two-thirds of all 767s sold.[41]

After the debut of the first stretched 767s, Boeing sought to address airline requests for even more capacity by proposing larger models, including a partial double-deck version informally named the “Hunchback of Mukilteo” (from a town near Boeing’s Everett factory) with a 757 body section mounted over the aft main fuselage.[49][50] In 1986, the manufacturer announced the 767-X, a revised model with extended wings and a wider cabin, but received little interest.[50] By 1988, the 767-X had evolved into an all-new twinjet, which revived the 777 designation.[50] Until the 777’s 1995 debut, the 767-300 and 767-300ER remained Boeing’s second-largest wide-bodies behind the 747.[47]

A white and red-tailed Japan Airlines aircraft above runway, with landing gears down, and an All Nippon Airways in blue and white livery taxiing.

A JAL 767-300 lands in front of an ANA 767-300ER at Kansai Airport. The −300 and −300ER variants account for almost two-thirds of all 767s sold.

Buoyed by a recovering global economy and ETOPS approval, 767 sales accelerated in the mid-to-late 1980s, with 1989 being the most prolific year with 132 firm orders.[41][46] By the early 1990s, the wide-body twinjet had become its manufacturer’s annual best-selling aircraft, despite a slight decrease due to economic recession.[41] During this period, the 767 became the most common airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.[51] By the end of the decade, 767s crossed the Atlantic more frequently than all other aircraft types combined.[52] The 767 also propelled the growth of point-to-point flights which bypassed major airline hubs in favor of direct routes.[20][53] Taking advantage of the aircraft’s lower operating costs and smaller capacity, operators added non-stop flights to secondary population centers, thereby eliminating the need for connecting flights.[20] The increase in the number of cities receiving non-stop services caused a paradigm shift in the airline industry as point-to-point travel gained prominence at the expense of the traditional hub-and-spoke model.[20][53]

In February 1990, the first 767 equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans, a 767-300, was delivered to British Airways.[54] Six months later, the carrier temporarily grounded its entire 767 fleet after discovering cracks in the engine pylons of several aircraft.[55] The cracks were related to the extra weight of the RB211 engines, which are 2,205 pounds (1,000 kg) heavier than other 767 engines.[55] During the grounding, interim repairs were conducted to alleviate stress on engine pylon components, and a parts redesign in 1991 prevented further cracks.[55] Boeing also performed a structural reassessment, resulting in production changes and modifications to the engine pylons of all 767s in service.[56]

Side quarter view of twin-engine jetliner in front of hangar, with surrounding crowds.

The Boeing 767-400ER was publicly unveiled on August 26, 1999.[42]

In January 1993, following an order from UPS Airlines,[57] Boeing launched a freighter variant, the 767-300F, which entered service with UPS on October 16, 1995.[42] The 767-300F featured a main deck cargo hold, upgraded landing gear, and strengthened wing structure.[58] In November 1993, the Japanese government launched the first 767 military derivative when it placed orders for the E-767, an Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) variant based on the 767-200ER.[59] The first two E-767s, featuring extensive modifications to accommodate surveillance radar and other monitoring equipment, were delivered in 1998 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[60][61]

In November 1995, after abandoning development of a smaller version of the 777, Boeing announced that it was revisiting studies for a larger 767.[62][63] The proposed 767-400X, a second stretch of the aircraft, offered an over 12 percent capacity increase versus the 767-300,[24] and featured an upgraded flight deck, enhanced interior, and wider wingspan.[62] The variant was specifically aimed at Delta Air Lines’ pending replacement of its aging Lockheed L-1011 TriStars, and faced competition from the A330-200, a shortened derivative of the Airbus A330.[62] In March 1997, Delta Air Lines launched the 767-400ER when it ordered the type to replace its L-1011 fleet.[42][62] In October 1997, Continental Airlines also ordered the 767-400ER to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10 fleet.[64][65] The type completed its first flight on October 9, 1999, and entered service with Continental Airlines on September 14, 2000.[42]

Further developments

Rear quarter view of an Austrian Airlines 767 takeoff, with red winglets.

Austrian Airlines 767-300ER with blended winglets, which reduce lift-induced drag and improve fuel efficiency

In the early 2000s, cumulative 767 deliveries approached 900, but new sales declined during an airline industry downturn.[66] In 2001, Boeing dropped plans for a longer-range model, the 767-400ERX, in favor of the proposed Sonic Cruiser, a new jetliner which aimed to fly 15 percent faster while having comparable fuel costs as the 767.[67][68] The following year, the manufacturer announced the KC-767 Tanker Transport, a second military derivative of the 767-200ER.[69] Launched with an order in October 2002 from the Italian Air Force, the KC-767 was intended for the dual role of refueling other aircraft and carrying cargo.[69] The Japanese government became the second customer for the type in March 2003.[69] In May 2003, the United States Air Force (USAF) announced its intent to lease KC-767s to replace its aging KC-135 tankers.[70][71] The plan was suspended in March 2004 amid a conflict of interest scandal,[70] resulting in multiple U.S. government investigations and the departure of several Boeing officials, including Philip Condit, the company’s chief executive officer, and chief financial officer Michael Sears.[72] The first KC-767s were delivered in 2008 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[73]

In late 2002, after airlines expressed reservations about its emphasis on speed over cost reduction,[74] Boeing halted development of the Sonic Cruiser.[74] The following year, the manufacturer announced the 7E7, a mid-size 767 successor made from composite materials which promised to be 20 percent more fuel efficient.[75] The new jetliner was the first stage of a replacement aircraft initiative called the Boeing Yellowstone Project.[74] Customers embraced the 7E7, later renamed 787 Dreamliner, and within two years it had become the fastest-selling airliner in the company’s history.[75] In 2005, Boeing opted to continue 767 production despite record Dreamliner sales, citing a need to provide customers waiting for the 787 with a more readily available option.[76] Subsequently, the 767-300ER was offered to customers affected by 787 delays, including All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines.[77] Some aging 767s, exceeding 20 years in age, were also kept in service past planned retirement dates due to the delays.[78] To extend the operational lives of older aircraft, airlines increased heavy maintenance procedures, including D-check teardowns and inspections for corrosion, a recurring issue on aging 767s.[79] The first 787s would ultimately enter service with All Nippon Airways in October 2011, three-and-a-half years behind schedule.[80]

Side quarter view of UPS twin-engine freighter in flight, with extended gear.

UPS, the largest 767-300F operator, placed additional orders in 2007.

In 2007, the 767 received a production boost when UPS and DHL Aviation placed a combined 33 orders for the 767-300F.[81][82] Renewed freighter interest led Boeing to consider enhanced versions of the 767-200 and 767-300F with increased gross weights, 767-400ER wing extensions, and 777 avionics.[83] However, net orders for the 767 declined from 24 in 2008 to just three in 2010.[84] During the same period, operators upgraded aircraft already in service; in 2008, the first 767-300ER retrofitted with blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated debuted with American Airlines.[85] The manufacturer-sanctioned winglets, at 11 feet (3.35 m) in height, improved fuel efficiency by an estimated 6.5 percent.[85] Other carriers including All Nippon Airways and Delta Air Lines also ordered winglet kits.[86][87]

On February 2, 2011, the 1,000th 767 rolled out, destined for All Nippon Airways.[88] The aircraft was the 91st 767-300ER ordered by the Japanese carrier, and with its completion the 767 became the second wide-body airliner to reach the thousand-unit milestone after the 747.[88][89] The 1,000th aircraft also marked the last model produced on the original 767 assembly line.[90] Beginning with the 1,001st aircraft, production moved to another area in the Everett factory which occupied nearly half the space as before.[90] The new assembly line made room for 787 production and aimed to boost manufacturing efficiency by over 20 percent.[90]

At the inauguration of its new assembly line, the 767’s order backlog numbered approximately 50, only enough for production to last until 2013.[90] Despite the reduced backlog, Boeing officials expressed optimism that additional orders were forthcoming.[90] On February 24, 2011, the USAF announced its selection of the KC-767 Advanced Tanker, an upgraded variant of the KC-767,[91] for its KC-X fleet renewal program.[90] The selection followed two rounds of tanker competition between Boeing and Airbus parent EADS, and came eight years after the USAF’s original 2003 announcement of its plan to lease KC-767s.[70] The tanker order encompassed 179 aircraft and was expected to sustain 767 production past 2013.[90]

In December 2011, FedEx Express announced a 767-300F order for 27 aircraft to replace its DC-10 freighters, citing the USAF tanker order and Boeing’s decision to continue production as contributing factors.[92] FedEx Express announced an agreement to buy an additional 19 of the −300F variant in June 2012.[93][94] In June 2015, FedEx said it was accelerating retirements of planes both to reflect demand and to modernize its fleet, recording charges of $276 million.[95] On July 21, 2015 FedEx announced an order for 50 767-300F with options on another 50, the largest order for the type.[96] FedEx confirmed that it has firm orders for 106 of the freighters for delivery between 2018 and 2023.[95]

Design

Overview

Close up view of a green Section 41, the nose section of a 767. Installation is not yet complete for the window panes.

The nose assembly of a Boeing 767, also known as fuselage section 41

The 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wings are swept at 31.5 degrees and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8 (533 mph or 858 km/h).[18] Each wing features a supercritical cross-section and is equipped with six-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flaps, inboard and outboard ailerons, and six spoilers.[6][97] The airframe further incorporates Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite material wing surfaces, Kevlar fairings and access panels, plus improved aluminum alloys, which together reduce overall weight by 1,900 pounds (860 kg) versus preceding aircraft.[6]

To distribute the aircraft’s weight on the ground, the 767 has a retractable tricycle landing gear with four wheels on each main gear and two for the nose gear.[6] The original wing and gear design accommodated the stretched 767-300 without major changes.[41] The 767-400ER features a larger, more widely spaced main gear with 777 wheels, tires, and brakes.[98] To prevent damage if the tail section contacts the runway surface during takeoff, 767-300 and 767-400ER models are fitted with a retractable tailskid.[98][99] The 767 has exit doors near the front and rear of the aircraft on the left side.[24]

In addition to shared avionics and computer technology, the 767 uses the same auxiliary power unit, electric power systems, and hydraulic parts as the 757.[30] A raised cockpit floor and the same forward cockpit windows result in similar pilot viewing angles.[100] Related design and functionality allows 767 pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate the 757 and share the same seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft.[17][101]

Flight systems

A cockpit of the 767, with multiple liquid crystal display monitors.

The upgraded 767-400ER cockpit uses LCDs in place of CRT displays.

The original 767 flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer.[17][102] The CRTs replace conventional electromechanical instruments found on earlier aircraft.[17] An enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on early 747s,[17] automates navigation and other functions, while an automatic landing system facilitates CAT IIIb instrument landings in low visibility situations.[6][103] The 767 became the first aircraft to receive CAT IIIb certification from the FAA for landings with 980 feet (300 m) minimum visibility in 1984.[104] On the 767-400ER, the cockpit layout is simplified further with six Rockwell Collins liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, and adapted for similarities with the 777 and the Next Generation 737.[105] To retain operational commonality, the LCD screens can be programmed to display information in the same manner as earlier 767s.[58] In 2012, Boeing and Rockwell Collins launched a further 787-based cockpit upgrade for the 767, featuring three landscape-format LCD screens that can display two windows each.[106]

The 767 is equipped with three redundant hydraulic systems for operation of control surfaces, landing gear, and other equipment.[107] Each engine powers a separate hydraulic system, and the third system uses electric pumps.[107] A ram air turbine is fitted to provide power for basic controls in the event of an emergency.[108] An early form of fly-by-wire is employed for spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables.[6] The fly-by-wire system reduces weight and provides for the independent operation of individual spoilers.[6]

Interior

The 767 features a twin-aisle cabin with a typical configuration of six abreast in business class and seven across in economy.[24] The standard seven abreast, 2–3–2 economy class layout places approximately 87 percent of all seats at a window or aisle.[109] As a result, the aircraft can be largely occupied before center seats need to be filled,[6] and each passenger is no more than one seat from the aisle.[109] It is possible to configure the aircraft with extra seats for up to an eight abreast configuration,[24] but this results in a cramped cabin and is therefore uncommon.[110]

Cabin of the 767. There are seven seats per row, with two aisles separating the seats. Light shines through the side-wall windows and overhead lighting.
An early 767-300 economy class cabin in 2–3–2 layout, showing the original interior design
Airliner cabin. Rows of seats arranged between two aisles. Each seatback has a monitor; additional monitors hang from ceiling.
A newer 767-300ER cabin with the 777-style Signature Interior

The 767 interior introduced larger overhead bins and more lavatories per passenger than previous aircraft.[111] The bins are wider to accommodate garment bags without folding, and strengthened for heavier carry-on items.[111] A single, large galley is installed near the aft doors, allowing for more efficient meal service and simpler resupply while at airports.[111] Passenger and service doors are an overhead plug type, which retract upwards,[24] and commonly used doors can be equipped with an electric-assist system.[6]

In 2000, a 777-style interior, known as the Boeing Signature Interior, debuted on the 767-400ER.[112] Subsequently adopted for all new-build 767s, the Signature Interior features even larger overhead bins, indirect lighting, and sculpted, curved panels.[113] The 767-400ER also received larger windows derived from the 777.[114] Older 767s can be retrofitted with the Signature Interior.[112] Some operators have adopted a simpler modification known as the Enhanced Interior, featuring curved ceiling panels and indirect lighting with minimal modification of cabin architecture,[115] as well as aftermarket modifications such as the NuLook 767 package by Heath Tecna.[116]

Variants

Underside view of a jet in-flight. Each wing of the two wings have an engine. Towards the left are the horizontal stabilizers.

A British Airways 767-300ER with deployed flaps after takeoff

The 767 has been produced in three fuselage lengths.[24] These debuted in progressively larger form as the 767-200, 767-300, and 767-400ER, respectively.[24][117] Longer-range variants include the 767-200ER and 767-300ER,[117] while cargo models include the 767-300F, a production freighter,[118] and conversions of passenger 767-200 and 767-300 models.[119]

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (767) and the variant designator (e.g. –200 or –300) into a truncated form (e.g. “762” or “763”[120]). Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may or may not append the range identifier.[120][121] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft type designator system uses a similar numbering scheme, but adds a preceding manufacturer letter;[122] all variants based on the 767-200 and 767-300 are classified under the codes “B762” and “B763”, respectively, while the 767-400ER receives the designation of “B764.”[122]

767-200

The 767-200 was the original model and entered service with United Airlines in 1982.[3] The type has been used primarily by mainline U.S. carriers for domestic routes between major hub centers such as Los Angeles to Washington.[3][52] The 767-200 was the first aircraft to be used on transatlantic ETOPS flights, beginning with TWA on February 1, 1985 under 90-minute diversion rules.[44][52] Deliveries for the variant totaled 128 aircraft.[1] There were 44 passenger and freighter conversions of the model in commercial service as of July 2016.[123] The type’s competitors included the Airbus A300 and A310.[124]

The 767-200 ceased production in the late 1980s due to being superseded by the extended-range 767-200ER.[41] Some early 767-200s were subsequently upgraded to extended-range specification.[52] In 1998, Boeing began offering 767-200 conversions to 767-200SF (Special Freighter) specification for cargo use,[125] and Israel Aerospace Industries has been licensed to perform cargo conversions since 2005.[126] The conversion process entails the installation of a side cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and added freight monitoring and safety equipment.[119] The 767-200SF was positioned as a replacement for Douglas DC-8 freighters.[125]

767-2C

Main article: Boeing KC-46 Pegasus

A commercial freighter version of the Boeing 767-200 with series 300 wings and an updated flightdeck was first flown on 29 December 2014.[127] A military tanker variant of the Boeing 767-2C is being developed for the U.S. Air Force as the KC-46.[127] Boeing is building two aircraft as commercial freighters which will be used to obtain Federal Aviation Administration certification, a further two Boeing 767-2Cs will be modified as military tankers.[127] As of 2014, Boeing does not have customers for the freighter.[127]

767-200ER

Sideview of 767 on climbout against a pale blue sky. A blue, white and red cheat-line runs the full length of the fuselage, above which says "American". The vertical tail sports two "A"s, between which is a simplified eagle.

An American Airlines 767-200ER departing Los Angeles International Airport

The 767-200ER was the first extended-range model and entered service with El Al in 1984.[42] The type’s increased range is due to an additional center fuel tank and a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of up to 395,000 lb (179,000 kg).[41][43] The type was originally offered with the same engines as the 767-200, while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and General Electric CF6 engines later became available.[41] The 767-200ER was the first 767 to complete a non-stop transatlantic journey, and broke the flying distance record for a twinjet airliner on April 17, 1988 with an Air Mauritius flight from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Port Louis, Mauritius, covering a distance of 8,727 nmi (10,000 mi; 16,200 km).[3] The 767-200ER has been acquired by international operators seeking smaller wide-body aircraft for long-haul routes such as New York to Beijing.[3][43] Deliveries of the type totaled 121 with no unfilled orders.[1] As of July 2016, 32 examples of passenger and freighter conversion versions were in airline service.[123] The type’s main competitors of the time included the Airbus A300-600R and the A310-300.[47]

767-300

The 767-300, the first stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Japan Airlines in 1986.[42] The type features a 21.1-foot (6.43 m) fuselage extension over the 767-200, achieved by additional sections inserted before and after the wings, for an overall length of 180.25 ft (54.9 m).[41] Reflecting the growth potential built into the original 767 design, the wings, engines, and most systems were largely unchanged on the 767-300.[41] An optional mid-cabin exit door is positioned ahead of the wings on the left,[24] while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines later became available.[47] The 767-300’s increased capacity has been used on high-density routes within Asia and Europe.[128] Deliveries for the type totaled 104 aircraft with no unfilled orders remaining.[1] As of July 2016, 54 of the variant were in airline service.[123] The type’s main competitor was the Airbus A300.[47]

767-300ER

Side quarter view of twin-engine jetliner in flight, with extended gear; white with red tail paint scheme.

A Air Canada Rouge 767-300ER

The 767-300ER, the extended-range version of the 767-300, entered service with American Airlines in 1988.[42] The type’s increased range was made possible by greater fuel tankage and a higher MTOW of 407,000 lb (185,000 kg).[47] Design improvements allowed the available MTOW to increase to 412,000 lb (187,000 kg) by 1993.[47] Power is provided by Pratt & Whitney PW4000, General Electric CF6, or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines.[47] Typical routes for the type include Los Angeles to Frankfurt.[48] The combination of increased capacity and range offered by the 767-300ER has been particularly attractive to both new and existing 767 operators.[117] It is the most successful version of the aircraft, with more orders placed than all other variants combined.[129] As of February 2017, 767-300ER deliveries stand at 583 with no unfilled orders.[1] There were 441 examples in service as of July 2016.[123] The type’s main competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[130]

767-300F

The 767-300F, the production freighter version of the 767-300ER, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1995.[131] The 767-300F can hold up to 24 standard 88-by-125-inch (220 by 320 cm) pallets on its main deck and up to 30 LD2 unit load devices on the lower deck,[24] with a total cargo volume of 15,469 cubic feet (438 m3).[132] The freighter has a main deck cargo door and crew exit,[118] while the lower deck features two port-side cargo doors and one starboard cargo door.[24] A general market version with onboard freight-handling systems, refrigeration capability, and crew facilities was delivered to Asiana Airlines on August 23, 1996.[57] As of February 2017, 767-300F deliveries stand at 192 with 69 unfilled orders.[1] Airlines operated 134 examples of the freighter variant and freighter conversions in July 2016.[123]

In June 2008, All Nippon Airways took delivery of the first 767-300BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter), a modified passenger-to-freighter model.[133] The conversion work was performed in Singapore by ST Aerospace Services, the first supplier to offer a 767-300BCF program,[133] and involved the addition of a main deck cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and additional freight monitoring and safety equipment.[119] Since then, Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, and Wagner Aeronautical have also offered passenger-to-freighter conversion programs for 767-300 series aircraft.[134]

767-400ER

 Twin-engine airliner with white and pink colors on approach with landing gear and flaps extended.

A Delta Air Lines 767-400ER in pink Breast Cancer Research Foundation livery landing at London Heathrow Airport

The 767-400ER, the first Boeing wide-body jet resulting from two fuselage stretches,[135] entered service with Continental Airlines in 2000.[42] The type features a 21.1-foot (6.43-metre) stretch over the 767-300, for a total length of 201.25 feet (61.3 m).[136] The wingspan is also increased by 14.3 feet (4.36 m) through the addition of raked wingtips.[57] Other differences include an updated cockpit, redesigned landing gear, and 777-style Signature Interior.[137] Power is provided by uprated Pratt & Whitney PW4000 or General Electric CF6 engines.[57]

The FAA granted approval for the 767-400ER to operate 180-minute ETOPS flights before it entered service.[138] Because its fuel capacity was not increased over preceding models, the 767-400ER has a range of 5,625 nautical miles (10,418 km),[139] less than previous extended-range 767s.[66] This is roughly the distance from Shenzhen to Seattle.[140] No 767-400 version was developed, while a longer-range version, the 767-400ERX, was offered for sale in 2000 before it was cancelled a year later,[67] leaving the 767-400ER as the sole version of the largest 767.[58] Boeing dropped the 767-400ER and the -200ER from its pricing list in 2014.[141] A total of 37 aircraft were delivered to the variant’s two airline customers, Continental Airlines (now merged with United Airlines) and Delta Air Lines, with no unfilled orders.[1] All 37 examples of the -400ER were in service in July 2016.[123] One additional example was produced as a military testbed, and later sold as a VIP transport.[142] The type’s closest competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[143]

Military and government

Versions of the 767 serve in a number of military and government applications, with responsibilities ranging from airborne surveillance and refueling to cargo and VIP transport. Several military 767s have been derived from the 767-200ER,[144][145] the longest-range version of the aircraft.[43][118]

  • Airborne Surveillance Testbed – the Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) was modified from the prototype 767-200 for a United States Army program, under a contract signed with the Strategic Air Command in July 1984.[146] Intended to evaluate the feasibility of using airborne optical sensors to detect and track hostile intercontinental ballistic missiles, the modified aircraft first flew on August 21, 1987.[147] Alterations included a large “cupola” or hump which ran along the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the trailing edge of the wings,[146] and a pair of ventral fins below the rear fuselage.[147] Inside the cupola was a suite of infrared seekers used for tracking theater ballistic missile launches.[148] The aircraft was later renamed as the Airborne Surveillance Testbed (AST).[149] Following the end of the AST program in 2002, the aircraft was retired for scrapping.[150]
Side view of Japan military reconnaissance aircraft on airport runway, with dorsal mounted sensor pallet.

Japan Self-Defense Forces E-767 AWACS
  • E-767 – the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) platform for the Japan Self-Defense Forces; it is essentially the Boeing E-3 Sentry mission package on a 767-200ER platform.[59] E-767 modifications, completed on 767-200ERs flown from the Everett factory to Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Wichita, Kansas, include structural strengthening to accommodate a dorsal surveillance radar system, engine nacelle alterations, as well as electrical and interior changes.[61] Japan is the operator of four E-767s. The first E-767s were delivered in March 1998.[60]
  • KC-767 Advanced Tanker – the 767-200ER-based aerial tanker developed for the USAF KC-X tanker competition.[71] It is an updated version of the KC-767, originally selected as the USAF’s new tanker aircraft in 2003, designated KC-767A,[151] and then dropped amid conflict of interest allegations.[71] The KC-767 Advanced Tanker is derived from studies for a longer-range cargo version of the 767-200ER,[145][152] and features a fly-by-wire refueling boom, a remote vision refueling system, and a 767-400ER-based flight deck with LCD screens and head-up displays.[91] Boeing was awarded the KC-X contract to build a 767-based tanker, to be designated KC-46A, in February 2011.[90]
A mostly-gray KC-767, with refueling probe extended, transferring fuel to a B-52 in the left-bottom hand corner.

Italian Air Force KC-767A tanker
  • KC-767 Tanker Transport – the 767-200ER-based aerial refueling platform operated by the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare),[153] and the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[73] Modifications conducted by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems include the addition of a fly-by-wire refueling boom, strengthened flaps, and optional auxiliary fuel tanks, as well as structural reinforcement and modified avionics.[69] All four KC-767Js ordered by Japan have been delivered.[73] The Aeronautica Militare received the first of its four KC-767As in January 2011.[154]
  • Tanker conversions – the 767 MMTT or Multi-Mission Tanker Transport is a 767-200ER-based aircraft operated by the Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana) and modified by Israel Aerospace Industries.[155] In 2013, the Brazilian Air Force ordered two 767-300ER tanker conversions from IAI for its KC-X2 program.[156]

Undeveloped variants

767-400ERX

Boeing offered the 767-400ERX, a longer-range version of the largest 767 model, for sale in 2000. Introduced along with the 747X, the type was to be powered by the 747X’s engines, namely the Engine Alliance GP7000 and the Rolls-Royce Trent 600.[157] An increased range of 6,492 nautical miles (12,023 km) was specified.[158] Kenya Airways provisionally ordered three 767-400ERXs to supplement its 767 fleet, but after Boeing cancelled the type’s development in 2001, switched the order to the 777-200ER.[67][159]

E-10 MC2A

The Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A was to be a 767-400ER-based replacement for the USAF’s 707-based E-3 Sentry AWACS, Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS, and RC-135 SIGINT aircraft.[160] The E-10 MC2A would have included an all-new AWACS system, with a powerful active electronically scanned array (AESA) that was also capable of jamming enemy aircraft or missiles.[161] One 767-400ER aircraft was produced as a testbed for systems integration, but the program was terminated in January 2009 and the prototype sold to Bahrain as a VIP transport.[142]

Operators

TWA jetliner in red and white livery during takeoff, with landing gears still down.
Trans World Airlines 767-200 at Lambert–St. Louis International Airport in 1985
Side angle view of twin-jet aircraft in flight.
LAN Airlines 767-300ER in anniversary scheme at Madrid–Barajas Airport in 2009
Main article: List of Boeing 767 operators

The customers that have ordered the most 767s are FedEx, Delta Air Lines, All Nippon Airways and United Airlines.[162] Delta Air Lines is the largest customer, having received 117 aircraft.[1] The Atlanta-based carrier is also the only customer to have ordered all passenger versions of the 767.[163] Its 100th example, a 767-400ER, was delivered in October 2000.[164] FedEx confirmed that it had placed firm orders for 50 of the freighters for delivery between 2018 and 2023.[165] United Airlines was the only carrier operating all versions of the 767 ER series (762ER, 763ER, and 764ER) as of November 2012.[166] The largest cargo customer is UPS Airlines, having received 59 aircraft as of February 2017.[1]

A total of 742 aircraft (all 767 variants) were in airline service in July 2016, with airline operators Delta Air Lines (91), UPS Airlines (59), United Airlines (51), American Airlines (40), Japan Airlines (40), All Nippon Airways (37), and others with fewer aircraft of the type.[123]

Orders and deliveries

Year Total 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
Orders 1,204 15 26 49 4 2 22 42 3 7 24 36 10 19 8 11 8 40 9 30 38
Deliveries 1,097 1 13 16 6 21 26 20 12 13 10 12 12 10 9 24 35 40 44 44 47
Year 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978
Orders 79 43 22 17 54 21 65 52 100 83 57 23 38 15 20 2 5 11 45 49
Deliveries 42 43 37 41 51 63 62 60 37 53 37 27 25 29 55 20 0 0 0 0
  • Data through February 28, 2017[1][84][167][168][169]

Model summary

Ventral view of twin-jet aircraft in flight.

Ukraine International Airlines 767-300ER at Ben Gurion Airport with optional winglets
Model Series ICAO code[122] Orders Deliveries Unfilled orders
767-200 B762 128 128
767-200ER B762 121 121
767-2C (KC-46) B762 38 38
767-300 B763 104 104
767-300ER B763 583 583
767-300F B763 192 123 69
767-400ER B764 38 38
Total 1,204 1,097 107
  • Data through end of February 2017.[1]

Accidents and notable incidents

As of October 2015, the Boeing 767 has been in 45 aviation occurrences,[170] including 15 hull-loss accidents.[171] Six fatal crashes, including three hijackings, have resulted in a total of 851 occupant fatalities.[171][172] The airliner’s first fatal crash, Lauda Air Flight 004, occurred near Bangkok on May 26, 1991, following the in-flight deployment of the left engine thrust reverser on a 767-300ER; none of the 223 aboard survived; as a result of this accident all 767 thrust reversers were deactivated until a redesign was implemented.[173] Investigators determined that an electronically controlled valve, common to late-model Boeing aircraft, was to blame.[174] A new locking device was installed on all affected jetliners, including 767s.[175] On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a 767-300ER, crashed off Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, in international waters killing all 217 people on board.[176] The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) determined the probable cause to be due to a deliberate action by the first officer; Egypt disputed this conclusion.[177] On April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129, a 767-200ER, crashed into a hill amid inclement weather while trying to land at Gimhae International Airport in Busan, South Korea. The crash resulted in the death of 129 of the 166 people on board, and the cause was attributed to pilot error.[178]

Side view of a parked Air Canada twin-engine jet in the desert, with stairs mounted next to the aircraft's forward door.

The “Gimli Glider” parked at Mojave Air and Space Port in February 2008

An early 767 incident was survived by all on board. On July 23, 1983, Air Canada Flight 143, a 767-200, ran out of fuel in-flight and had to glide with both engines out for almost 43 nautical miles (80 km) to an emergency landing at Gimli, Manitoba. The pilots used the aircraft’s ram air turbine to power the hydraulic systems for aerodynamic control. There were no fatalities and only minor injuries. This aircraft was nicknamed “Gimli Glider” after the airport at which it landed. The aircraft, registered C-GAUN, continued flying for Air Canada until its retirement in January 2008.[179]

The 767 has been involved in six hijackings, three resulting in loss of life,[170] for a combined total of 282 occupant fatalities.[172] On November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961, a 767-200ER, was hijacked and crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near the Comoros Islands after running out of fuel, killing 125 out of the 175 persons on board;[180] survivors have been rare among instances of land-based aircraft ditching on water.[181][182] Two 767s were involved in the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, resulting in the collapse of its two main towers. American Airlines Flight 11, a 767-200ER, crashed into the north tower, killing all 92 people on board, and United Airlines Flight 175, a 767-200, crashed into the south tower, with the death of all 65 on board. In addition, more than 2,600 people were killed in the towers or on the ground.[183] A foiled 2001 shoe bomb plot involving an American Airlines 767-300ER resulted in passengers being required to remove their shoes for scanning at U.S. security checkpoints.[184][185]

On November 1, 2011, LOT Polish Airlines Flight 16, a 767-300ER, safely landed at Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport in Warsaw, Poland after a mechanical failure of the landing gear forced an emergency landing with the landing gear up. There were no injuries, but the aircraft involved was damaged and subsequently written off.[186][187][188] At the time of the incident, aviation analysts speculated that it may have been the first instance of a complete landing gear failure in the 767’s service history.[189] Subsequent investigation however determined that while a damaged hose had disabled the aircraft’s primary landing gear extension system, an otherwise functional backup system was inoperative due to an accidentally deactivated circuit breaker.[187][188]

In January 2014, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration issued a directive that ordered inspections of the elevators on more than 400 767s beginning in March 2014; the focus is on fasteners and other parts that can fail and cause the elevators to jam. The issue was first identified in 2000 and has been the subject of several Boeing service bulletins. The inspections and repairs are required to be completed within six years.[190] The aircraft has also had multiple occurrences of “uncommanded escape slide inflation” during maintenance or operations,[191] and during flight.[192][193] In late 2015, the FAA issued a preliminary directive to address the issue.[194]

On October 28, 2016, American Airlines Flight 383, a 767-300ER with 161 passengers and 9 crew members, aborted takeoff at Chicago O’Hare Airport following an uncontained failure of the right GE CF6-80C2 engine.[195] The engine failure, which hurled fragments over a considerable distance, caused a fuel leak resulting in a pool fire under the right wing.[196] Fire and smoke entered the cabin. All passengers and crew evacuated the aircraft, with 20 passengers and one flight attendant sustaining minor injuries using the evacuation slides.[197][198]

Retirement and display

Side view of a parked Delta Air Lines twin-engine jet in hangar, with stairs mounted next to the aircraft's forward door.

“The Spirit of Delta” at the Delta Air Lines Air Transport Heritage Museum

As new 767s roll off the assembly line, older models have been retired and scrapped. One complete aircraft is known to have been retained for exhibition, specifically N102DA, the first 767-200 to operate for Delta Air Lines and the twelfth example built.[199][200] The exhibition aircraft, named “The Spirit of Delta” by the employees who helped purchase it in 1982, underwent restoration at the Delta Air Lines Air Transport Heritage Museum in Atlanta, Georgia.[200] The restoration was completed in 2010.[200] Featuring the original delivered interior as well as historical displays, the aircraft is viewable by visitors (self-guided) daily, during the museum’s operating hours.[201] Hangar renovations, begun in June 2013, are now complete, and the museum is accessible on a daily basis.[202]

In June 2005, four retired American Airlines 767-200’s (301,302,303,304.) were dismantled for parts in Roswell, New Mexico, and their nose sections removed intact for collector or film use.[203] Of these four aircraft, the cockpit of 301 N301AA, the first 767-200 delivered to American Airlines and the eighth example built, was transported to Victorville, California, to be restored for museum display.[204][205] As of 2013, the cockpit section of N301AA is housed at the interim museum location of the American Museum of Aviation, a nonprofit organization in Las Vegas, Nevada, along with a display of American Airlines photographs.[206]

Specifications

767 Airplane Characteristics[24]
Variant 767-200 767-200ER 767-300 767-300ER 767-300F 767-400ER
Cockpit crew Two
Three-class[24](pp23–29) 174 (15F, 40J, 119Y) 210 (18F, 42J, 150Y) 243 (16F, 36J, 189Y)
Two-class[24](pp23–29) 216 (18J, 196 Y) 261 (24J, 237Y) 296 (24J, 272Y)
Single class[24](pp23–29) 245Y 290Y 409Y
Exit limit[207](p10) 290 351 375
Cargo capacity[24](pp9–14) 3,070 ft³ / 86.9m³ 4,030 ft³ / 114.1m³ 15,469 ft³ / 438m³
58-ton / 52.7 tonnes[208]
4,905 ft³ / 138.9m³
Unit load devices[24](pp32–36) 22 LD2s 30 LD2s 30 LD2s + 24 88×108in pallets 38 LD2s
Length[24](pp15–18) 159 ft 2in / 48.51m) 180 ft 3in / 54.94m 201 ft 4in / 61.37m
Wingspan[24](pp15–18) 156 ft 1in / 47.57m 170 ft 4in / 51.92m
Wing area 3,050 ft² / 283.3m²[209] 3,130 ft² / 290.7m²[verification needed]
Wing sweepback 31.5°[209]
Fuselage Height 17 ft 9in / 5.41m[24](pp15–18)
Fuselage Width 16 ft 6in / 5.03m[24](pp15–18)
Cabin width 186in/ 4.72m[24](pp30)
MTOW[24](pp9–14) 315,000 lb / 142,882 kg 395,000 lb / 179,169 kg 350,000 lb / 158,758 kg 412,000 lb / 186,880 kg 450,000 lb / 204,116 kg
MLW[24](pp9–14) 272,000 lb / 123,377 kg 300,000 lb / 136,078 kg 300,000 lb / 136,078 kg 320,000 lb / 145,150 kg 326,000 lb / 147,871 kg 350,000 lb / 158,757 kg
MZFW[24](pp9–14) 250,000 lb / 113,398 kg 260,000 lb / 117,934 kg 278,000 lb / 126,099 kg 295,000 lb / 133,810 kg 309,000 lb / 140,160 kg 330,000 lb / 149,685 kg
OEW[24](pp9–14) 176,650 lb / 80,127 kg 181,610 lb / 82,377 kg 189,750 lb / 86,069 kg 198,440 lb / 90,011 kg 190,000 lb / 86,183 kg 229,000 lb / 103,872 kg
Fuel capacity[24](pp9–14) 16,700USgal / 63,217L 24,140Usgal / 91,380L 16,700USgal / 63,216L 24,140USgal / 91,380L
Max Fuel[24](pp9–14) 111,890 lb / 50,753 kg 161,738 lb / 73,363 kg 111,890 lb / 50,753 kg 161,740 lb / 73,364 kg
Range[210] 3,900 nmi (7,200 km)[a][24](p47) 6,590nmi / 12,200 km[b] 3,900 nmi (7,200 km)[c][24](p49) 5,980nmi / 11,070 km[d] 3,225nmi / 6,025 km [e][208] 5,625nmi / 10,415 km[f]
Long range cruise 459 kn (850 km/h) at 39,000 ft (12,000 m)[209]
Maximum cruise 486 kn (900 km/h) at 39,000 ft (12,000 m)[209]
Takeoff[g][210] 6,300 ft (1,900 m)[24](p58) 2,480m / 8,150 ft 9,200 ft (2,800 m)[24](p64) 2,650m / 8,700 ft 3,290m / 10,800 ft
Service Ceiling 43,100 ft (13,100 m)[207](p10)
Engines (×2)[24](p10) P&W JT9D-7R4/7R4E / P&W PW4052 / GE CF6-80A/A2/C2-B2 P&W JT9D-7R4/7R4E / P&W PW4052/56 / GE CF6-80A/A2/C2-B2/C2-B4 / RB211-524G/H P&W JT9D-7R4/7R4E / P&W PW4052 / GE CF6-80A/A2/C2-B2 / RB211-524H GE CF6-80C2-B4/0C2-B6/C2-B8F/C2-B7F1 / PW4056/60/62 / RB211-524G/H GE CF6-80C2-B8F/C2-B7F1 / PW4062
Thrust (×2)[24](p10) 48,000-52,500 lbf / 21,772-23,814kgf 48,000-60,600 lbf / 27,488-27,488kgf 48,000-60,600 lbf / 21,772-27,488kgf 56,750-61,500 lbf / 25,741-27,896kgf 60,600 lbf / 27,488kgf

See also

  • Aviation portal
  • USA portal
  • Competition between Airbus and Boeing
Related development
  • Boeing 757[8]
  • Boeing E-767[59]
  • Boeing KC-46[90]
  • Boeing KC-767[69]
  • Northrop Grumman E-10 MC2A[160]
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
  • Airbus A300[124]
  • Airbus A310[124]
  • Airbus A330-200[130]
  • Boeing Business Jet
  • Boeing 777
  • Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Related lists
  • List of jet airliners
  • List of civil aircraft
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Qeshm Virtual Airline Has Open New Hub In Australia

Adelaide Airport (IATA: ADL, ICAO: YPAD) is the principal airport of Adelaide, South Australia and the fifth busiest airport in Australia, servicing just over eight million passengers in the calendar year ending 31 December 2016. Located adjacent to West Beach, it is approximately 6 km (3.7 mi) west of the city-centre. It has been operated privately by Adelaide Airport Limited under a long-term lease from the Commonwealth Government since 29 May 1998.:p 25

First established in 1955, a new dual international/domestic terminal was opened in 2005 which has received numerous awards, including being named the world’s second-best international airport (5–15 million passengers) in 2006. Also, it has been named Australia’s best capital city airport in 2006, 2009 and 2011.

Over the 2016 calendar year, Adelaide Airport experienced passenger growth of 5.9% internationally and 2.1% for domestic and regional passengers

History

The first Adelaide airport was an aerodrome constructed in 1921 on 24 ha (59 acres) of land in Hendon. The small facility allowed for a mail service between Adelaide and Sydney. To meet the substantial growth in aviation, Parafield Airport was developed in 1927. The demand on aviation outgrew Parafield and the current site of Adelaide Airport was selected at West Torrens (now West Beach) in January 1946. An alternative site at Port Adelaide, including a seaplane facility, was considered inferior and too far from the C.B.D. Construction began and flights commenced in 1954. Parafield Airport was turned into a private and military aviation facility.

Passengers boarding from the tarmac in December 1967; this continued for domestic passengers until 2006.

An annexe to one of the large hangars at the airport served as a passenger terminal until the Commonwealth Government provided funds for the construction of a temporary building.[9] International services became regular from 1982 upon the construction of an international terminal. A new dual-use $260 million facility replaced both the original ‘temporary’ domestic and international terminals in 2005.

In October 2006, the new terminal was named the Capital City Airport of the Year at the Australian Aviation Industry Awards in Cairns. In March 2007, Adelaide Airport was rated the world’s second best airport in the 5–15 million passengers category at the Airports Council International (ACI) 2006 awards in Dubai.

Plans were announced for an expansion of the terminal in July 2007, including more aerobridges and demolition of the old International Terminal.

On 5 August 2008 Tiger Airways Australia confirmed that Adelaide Airport would become the airline’s second hub which would base two of the airline’s Airbus A320s by early 2009. On 29 October 2009 Tiger announced it would be housing its third A320 at Adelaide Airport from early 2010. Tiger Airways later shut down its operations from Adelaide only to recommence them in 2013.

The airport encountered major problems during the eruption of Puyehue volcano in Chile, the ash cloud caused flights to be cancelled nationwide, with over 40,000 passengers being left stranded in Adelaide.

Previous terminals

The original international terminal had only one gate with limited space for passengers. Check in desks were small and waiting space was limited. It was partially demolished to make the area more secure and allow aircraft to park on the other side of the terminal. The old domestic terminal was closed shortly after the new terminal was opened to flights and was demolished not long after. A new control tower was built west of the current terminal with the old control tower maintained for additional operations.

Present terminal building

A large crowd watches Qantas A380 VH-OQA visit Adelaide, 27 September 2008

Main concourse terminal one, 2006

The airport was redeveloped in 2005 at a cost of $260 million. The redevelopment was managed by builders Hansen Yuncken. Before the redevelopment, the old airport terminal was criticised for its limited capacity and lack of aerobridges.

Proposals were developed for an upgraded terminal of world standard. The final proposal, released in 1997, called for a large, unified terminal in which both domestic and international flights would use the same terminal. A combination of factors, the most notable of which was the collapse of Ansett Australia, then a duopoly domestic carrier with Qantas, and the resultant loss of funds for its share of the construction cost, saw the new terminal plans shelved until an agreement was reached in 2002.

The new terminal was opened on 7 October 2005 by the Prime Minister John Howard and South Australian Premier Mike Rann. However, Adelaide Airport Limited announced soon afterward that only international flights would use the new facility immediately due to problems with the fuel pumps and underground pipes. These problems related initially to the anti-rusting agent applied to the insides of the fuel pumps, then to construction debris in the pipes. Although international and regional (from December 2005) aircraft were refuelled via tankers, a lack of space and safety concerns prevented this action for domestic jet aircraft, which instead continued operations at the old terminal. The re-fueling system was cleared of all debris and the new terminal was used for all flights from 17 February 2006. The new airport terminal is approximately 850 m (2,790 ft) end to end and is capable of handling 27 aircraft, including an Airbus A380, simultaneously and processing 3,000 passengers per hour. It includes high-amenity public and airline lounges, 14 glass-sided aerobridges, 42 common user check-in desks and 34 shop fronts. Free wireless Internet is also provided throughout the terminal by Internode Systems, a first for an Australian airport.

The first Qantas A380, VH-OQA “Nancy Bird Walton”, landed at the airport on 27 September 2008, Several thousand spectators gathered to catch a glimpse of the giant aircraft. This was a 25-minute stopover before it flew on to Melbourne. This was one of several visits the airliner made as part of a pilot training and testing program.

In July 2013, Adelaide Airport became the first Australian airport and second airport worldwide to have Google Street View technology, allowing passengers to explore the arrival and departure sections of the airport before travel.

Recent development

As of 2011 a series of developments are either underway, approved or proposed for Adelaide Airport. In February 2011 a A$100 million building program was launched as part of a five-year master plan. The developments which have been made public (whether part of the building plan or not) are listed below:

  • New airport road network to improve traffic flow (completed)
  • New multi-storey car park – increasing parking spaces from 800 to 1,650 (completed August 2012)
  • New passenger terminal plaza frontage (completed March 2013)
  • Walkway bridge connecting new car park and existing terminal building (completed March 2013)
  • Terminal concourse extension
  • Three new aerobridges
  • Terminal commercial projects and passenger facilities
  • Relocation of regional carrier Rex
  • Relocation of old transportable charter aircraft operators’ terminal
  • New control tower, twice the height of the old tower, expected to cost A$16.9 million (opened early 2012)
  • Addition of Emirates airlines, Qatar Airways and China Southern Airlines to the list of airlines serving the airport.
  • Adelaide Airport Hotel (37 m (121 ft) tall, nine levels)
  • New airside cargo facility (1500sqm)

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

The tarmac of the regional Gate 50
Airlines Destinations Departure Gates
Air New Zealand Auckland International
Alliance Airlines Ballera, Moomba, Olympic Dam
Mining Charter: Coober Pedy, Port Augusta, Prominent Hill Mine
Domestic
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong International
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou International
Emirates Dubai–International International
Fiji Airways Nadi (begins 30 June 2017) International
Jetstar Airways Avalon, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Perth, Sunshine Coast, Sydney Domestic
Jetstar Airways Denpasar International
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International International
Pel-Air Mining Charter: Jacinth-Ambrosia Mine Domestic
Qantas Alice Springs, Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney Domestic
QantasLink
operated by Cobham Aviation Services Australia
Brisbane, Sydney, Perth Domestic
QantasLink
operated by Eastern Australia Airlines
Port Lincoln, Whyalla Domestic
Qatar Airways Doha International
Regional Express Airlines Broken Hill, Ceduna, Coober Pedy, Kingscote, Mildura, Mount Gambier, Port Lincoln, Whyalla Domestic
Rossair Mining Charter: Ballera, Challenger, Moomba Domestic
Sharp Airlines Port Augusta
Mining Charter: Beverley Uranium Mine, Honeymoon Uranium Mine, Leigh Creek, Moomba, Prominent Hill Mine
Domestic
Singapore Airlines Singapore International
Tigerair Australia Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney Domestic
Virgin Australia Alice Springs,[29] Brisbane, Canberra, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney Domestic

Cargo

Airlines Destinations
Atlas Air
operated by Emirates Sky Cargo
Dubai–International
Atlas Air operated by Qantas Freight Los Angeles{citation needed}
Australian air Express
operated by Cobham
Melbourne, Sydney
MASkargo Kuala Lumpur–International, Sydney
Qantas Freight Sydney, Singapore
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore
Toll Priority
operated by Pel-Air and Toll Aviation
Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Canberra

Traffic and statistics

Domestic

Busiest domestic/regional routes out of Adelaide Airport
Airport Passengers
Year Ending
2016[30]
% Change July
2016[31]
% Change
1 Victoria (Australia) Melbourne 2,393,636 Increase 3.6 215,400 Increase 6.4
2 New South Wales Sydney 1,871,990 Increase 2.2 153,700 Decrease 1.7
3 Queensland Brisbane 830,335 Increase 4.7 76,200 Increase 7.2
4 Western Australia Perth 617,103 Increase 1.0 50,400 Decrease 5.1
5 Queensland Gold Coast 221,536 Increase 1.0 20,200 Increase 1.2
6 South Australia Port Lincoln 178,895 Decrease 3.7 14,000 Decrease 4.4
7 Australian Capital Territory Canberra 174,046 Increase 2.4 13,200 Decrease 6.5
8 Northern Territory Alice Springs1 120,714 n/a 11,700 Decrease 6.1
Notes
  • ^1 Alice Springs only included from April 2015.

International

Busiest International routes out of Adelaide Airport
Airport Passengers
Year Ending
2015/16[32]
% Change June
2016[33]
% Change
1 United Arab Emirates Dubai 202,502 Decrease 3.1 14,451 Decrease 21.8
2 Singapore Singapore 199,632 Decrease 2.9 14,796 Increase 3.3
3 Indonesia Denpasar (Bali) 160,202 Increase 6.6 16,169 Increase 10.3
4 Hong Kong Hong Kong 104,696 Increase 16.0 8,124 Increase 9.9
5 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur–International 98,295 Decrease 50.9 6,202 Decrease 45.8
6 New Zealand Auckland 76,243 Decrease 2.5 4,258 Increase 0.1
7 Qatar Doha 15,632 new 9,079 new

Annual Passengers

Annual passenger statistics
Year Passenger movements
2001–02 4,180,000
2002–03 4,358,000
2003–04 4,897,000
2004–05 5,371,000
2005–06 5,776,000
2006–07 6,192,000
2007–08 6,635,000
2008–09 6,799,000
2009–10 7,030,000
2010–11 7,297,000
2011-12 6,968,000
2012-13 7,300,000
2013-14 7,696,000
2014-15 7,670,000
2015-16 7,777,747
2020-21 9,856,000
2025-26 11,552,000
2030–31 13,537,000

Cargo

Busiest international freight routes into and out of Adelaide Airport
(YE June 2011)[34]
Rank Airport Tonnes  % Change
1 Singapore, Singapore 10,995.7 Decrease10.8
2 Hong Kong, Hong Kong 3,413.2 Decrease8.8
3 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur–International 2,984.4 Increase1.9
4 New Zealand, Auckland 449.4 Decrease11.8

Ground transport

Adelaide Metro operates frequent JetBus buses connecting the airport to the Central Business District and Glenelg. Routes J1, J1X and J3 operate to the City every 15mins. Route J1 also operates to Harbour Town Shopping Centre and Routes J1 and J3 continue to Glenelg. Routes J7 and J8 operate to West Lakes and Marion. The AAL’s latest airport master plan proposes a light rail service. Historically airlines provided connecting buses to the Central Business District, after which a private bus service provided a service until 2013.

 

Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased 4 Airbus 330-300 for ” IKA ” Airport Base

Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased 4 Airbus 330-300 for ” IKA ” Airport Base

The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus, a division of Airbus Group. Versions of the A330 have a range of 5,000 to 13,430 kilometres (2,700 to 7,250 nmi; 3,110 to 8,350 mi) and can accommodate up to 335 passengers in a two-class layout or carry 70 tonnes (154,000 lb) of cargo.

The A330’s origin dates to the mid-1970s as one of several conceived derivatives of Airbus’s first airliner, the A300. The A330 was developed in parallel with the four-engine A340, which shared many common airframe components but differed in number of engines. Both airliners incorporated fly-by-wire flight control technology, first introduced on an Airbus aircraft with the A320, as well as the A320’s six-display glass cockpit. In June 1987, after receiving orders from various customers, Airbus launched the A330 and A340. The A330 was Airbus’s first airliner that offered a choice of three engines: General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, and Rolls-Royce Trent 700.

The A330-300, the first variant, took its maiden flight in November 1992 and entered passenger service with Air Inter in January 1994. Airbus followed up with the slightly shorter A330-200 variant in 1998. Subsequently-developed A330 variants include a dedicated freighter, the A330-200F, a military tanker, the A330 MRTT, and a corporate jet, ACJ330. The A330 MRTT formed the basis of the proposed KC-45, entered into the US Air Force’s KC-X competition in conjunction with Northrop Grumman, where after an initial win, on appeal lost to Boeing’s tanker.

Since its launch, the A330 has allowed Airbus to expand market share in wide-body airliners. Competing twinjets include the Boeing 767 and 777, along with the 787, which entered service in late 2011. The long-range Airbus A350 XWB was planned to succeed both the A330 and A340. The current A330 (referred to as the A330ceo (current engine option) since 2014) is to be replaced by the A330neo, which includes new engines and other improvements. As of February 2017, A330 orders stand at 1,682, of which 1,330 have been delivered and 1,300 remain in operation. The largest operator is Turkish Airlines with 60 A330s in its fleet.

Background

Airbus jetliners, 1972–1994
Model A300 A310 A320 A330 A340
Prior
code(s)
B10 SA2 B9
(TA9)
B11
(TA11)
Debut 1972 1983 1988 1994 1993
Body Wide Wide Narrow Wide Wide
Engines 2 2 2 2 4
Range Short/
medium
Medium/
long
Short/
medium
Medium/
long
Long

Airbus’s first airliner, the A300, was envisioned as part of a diverse family of commercial aircraft. In pursuit of this goal, studies began in the early 1970s into derivatives of the A300. Before introducing the A300, Airbus identified nine possible variations designated B1 through B9. A tenth variant, the A300B10, was conceived in 1973 and developed into the longer range Airbus A310. Airbus then focused its efforts on single-aisle (SA) studies, conceiving a family of airliners later known as the Airbus A320 family, the first commercial aircraft with digital fly-by-wire controls. During these studies Airbus turned its focus back to the wide-body aircraft market, simultaneously working on both projects.

In the mid-1970s Airbus began development of the A300B9, a larger derivative of the A300, which would eventually become the A330. The B9 was essentially a lengthened A300 with the same wing, coupled with the most powerful turbofan engines available. It was targeted at the growing demand for high-capacity, medium-range, transcontinental trunk routes. Offering the same range and payload as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 but with 25 per cent more fuel efficiency,[12] the B9 was seen as a viable replacement for the DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijets. It was also considered as a medium-ranged successor to the A300.

At the same time, a 200-seat four-engine version, the B11 (which would eventually become the A340) was also under development. The B11 was originally planned to take the place of narrow-body Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s then in commercial use, but would later evolve to target the long-range, wide-body trijet replacement market. To differentiate from the SA series, the B9 and B11 were re-designated as the TA9 and TA11, with TA standing for “twin aisle”. Development costs were reduced by the two aircraft using the same fuselage and wing, with projected savings of US$500 million. Another factor was the split preference of those within Airbus and, more importantly, those of prospective customers; twinjets were favoured in North America, quad-jets desired in Asia, and operators had mixed views in Europe. Airbus ultimately found that most potential customers favoured four engines due to their exemption from existing twinjet range restrictions and their ability to be ferried with one inactive engine. As a result, development plans prioritised the four-engined TA11 ahead of the TA9.

Design effort

The first specifications for the TA9 and TA11, aircraft that could accommodate 410 passengers in a one-class layout, emerged in 1982. They showed a large underfloor cargo area that could hold five cargo pallets or sixteen LD3 cargo containers in the forward, and four pallets or fourteen LD3s in the aft hold—double the capacity of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar or DC-10, and 8.46 metres (27.8 ft) longer than the Airbus A300. By June 1985, the TA9 and TA11 had received more improvements, including the adoption of the A320 flight deck, digital fly-by-wire (FBW) control system, and side-stick control. Airbus had developed a common cockpit for their aircraft models to allow quick transition by pilots. The flight crews could transition from one type to another after only one week’s training, which reduces operator costs. The two TAs would use the vertical stabiliser, rudder, and circular fuselage sections of the A300-600, extended by two barrel sections.

Airbus briefly considered the variable camber wing, a concept that requires changing the wing profile for a given phase of flight. Studies were carried out by British Aerospace (BAe), now part of BAE Systems, at Hatfield and Bristol. Airbus estimated this would yield a two per cent improvement in aerodynamic efficiency, but the feature was rejected because of cost and difficulty of development. A true laminar flow wing (a low-drag shape that improves fuel efficiency) was also considered but rejected.

A mostly blue jet engine suspended on a wing; it is characterised by its smooth nacelle, or outer casing.

The A330 was the first Airbus aircraft on which Rolls-Royce supplied engines, with its Trent 700 turbofans. This engine is from an EgyptAir A330 in late 1990s-mid-2000s-era livery.

From the beginning of the TA9’s development, a choice of engines from the three major engine manufacturers, Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney, and GE Aviation, was planned. GE Aviation first offered the General Electric CF6-80C2. However, later studies indicated that more thrust was needed to increase the initial power capability from 267 to 289 kN (60,000 to 65,000 lbf). GE enlarged the CF6-80C2 fan from 236 to 244 centimetres (92.9 to 96.1 in) to create the CF6-80E1, giving a new thrust output of 300–320 kN (67,000–72,000 lbf). Rolls-Royce initially wanted to use the 267 kN (60,000 lbf) Trent 600 to power Airbus’s newest twinjet and the upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-11. However, the company later agreed to develop an engine solely for the A330, the Trent 700, with a larger diameter and 311 kN (69,900 lbf) of thrust. Similarly, Pratt & Whitney signed an agreement that covered the development of the A330-only PW4168. The company increased the fan size to augment power, enabling the engine to deliver 311 kN (69,900 lbf) of thrust.

With necessary funding available, the Airbus Supervisory Board approved the development of the A330 and A340 with potential customers on 27 January 1986. Its chairman Franz Josef Strauß stated afterwards that “Airbus Industrie is now in a position to finalise the detailed technical definition of the TA9, which is now officially designated the A330, and the TA11, now called the A340, with potential launch customer airlines, and to discuss with them the terms and conditions for launch commitments”. The designations were originally reversed and were switched so the quad-jet airliner would have a “4” in its name. Airbus hoped for five airlines to sign for both the A330 and A340, and on 12 May sent sale proposals to the most likely candidates, including Lufthansa and Swissair.

Production and testing

In preparation for the production of the A330 and A340, Airbus’s partners invested heavily in new facilities. In England, BAe made a £7 million investment in a three-storey technical centre with 15,000 m2 (161,000 sq ft) of floor area at Filton. BAe also spent £5 million on a new production line at its Broughton wing production plant.[31] In Germany, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) invested DM400 million ($225 million) on manufacturing facilities in the Weser estuary, including at Bremen, Einswarden, Varel, and Hamburg. France saw the biggest investments, with Aérospatiale constructing a new Fr.2.5 billion ($411 million) final-assembly plant adjacent to Toulouse-Blagnac Airport in Colomiers; by November 1988, the pillars for the new Clément Ader assembly hall had been erected. The assembly process featured increased automation, such as robots drilling holes and installing fasteners during the wing-to-fuselage mating process.

View from the air. Runway to the left and bottom. To the right long buildings and lots of aircraft.

Final assembly area for the A330, next to Toulouse-Blagnac Airport

On 12 March 1987, Airbus received the first orders for the twinjet. The domestic French airline Air Inter placed five firm orders and fifteen options, while Thai Airways International requested eight aircraft, split evenly between firm orders and options. Airbus announced the next day that it would formally launch the A330 and A340 programmes by April 1987, with deliveries of the A340 to begin in May 1992 and A330 deliveries to start in 1993. Northwest Airlines signed a letter of intent for twenty A340s and ten A330s on 31 March.

BAe eventually received £450 million of funding from the UK government, well short of the £750 million it had originally requested for the design and construction of the wings. The German and French governments also provided funding. Airbus issued subcontracts to companies in Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Greece, Italy, India, Japan, South Korea, Portugal, the United States, and the former Yugoslavia. With funding in place, Airbus launched the A330 and A340 programmes on 5 June 1987, just prior to the Paris Air Show. At that time, the order book stood at 130 aircraft from ten customers, including lessor International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC). Of the order total, forty-one were for A330s. In 1989, Asian carrier Cathay Pacific joined the list of purchasers, ordering nine A330s and later increasing this number to eleven.

The wing-to-fuselage mating of the first A330, the tenth airframe of the A330 and A340 line, began in mid-February 1992. This aircraft, coated with anti-corrosion paint, was rolled out on 31 March without its General Electric CF6-80E1 engines, which were installed by August. During a static test, the wing failed just below requirement; BAe engineers later resolved the problem. At the 1992 Farnborough Airshow, Northwest deferred delivery of sixteen A330s to 1994, following the cancellation of its A340 orders.

A330-300 interior, economy class

The first completed A330 was rolled out on 14 October 1992, with the maiden flight following on 2 November. Weighing 181,840 kg (401,000 lb), including 20,980 kg (46,300 lb) of test equipment, the A330 became the biggest twinjet to have flown, until the later first flight of the Boeing 777. The flight lasted five hours and fifteen minutes during which speed, height, and other flight configurations were tested. Airbus intended the test flight programme to comprise six aircraft flying a total of 1,800 hours. On 21 October 1993, the Airbus A330 received the European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certifications simultaneously after 1,114 cumulative airborne test hours and 426 test flights. At the same time, weight tests came in favourable, showing the plane was 500 kg (1,100 lb) under weight.

On 30 June 1994, a fatal crash occurred during certification of the Pratt & Whitney engine when an A330 crashed near Toulouse. Both pilots and the five passengers died. The flight was designed to test autopilot response during a one-engine-off worst-case scenario with the centre of gravity near its aft limit. Shortly after takeoff, the pilots had difficulty setting the autopilot, and the aircraft lost speed and crashed. An investigation by an internal branch of Direction Generale d’Aviation concluded that the accident resulted from slow response and incorrect actions by the crew during the recovery. This led to a revision of A330 operating procedures.

Entry into service

Launch operator Air Inter A330-300

Air Inter became the first operator of the A330, putting the aircraft into service on 17 January 1994 between Orly Airport, Paris, and Marseille. Deliveries to Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and Thai Airways International were postponed to address delamination of the composite materials in the PW4168 engine’s thrust reverser assembly. Thai Airways received its first A330 during the second half of the year, operating it on routes from Bangkok to Taipei and Seoul. Cathay Pacific received its Trent 700 A330s following the certification of that engine on 22 December 1994. MAS received its A330 on 1 February 1995 and then rescheduled its other ten orders.

Airbus intended the A330 to compete in the Extended-range Twin-engine Operation Performance Standards (ETOPS) market, specifically with the Boeing 767. (ETOPS is a standard that allows longer range flights away from a diversion airport for aircraft that have met special design and testing standards.) Instead of the “ETOPS out of the box” or “Early ETOPS” approach taken by Boeing with its 777, Airbus gradually increased ETOPS approval on the A330 using in-service experience. Airbus suggested that the A340 and A330 were essentially identical except for their engine number, and that the A340’s experience could be applied to the A330’s ETOPS approval. The plans were for all three engine types to enter service with 90-minute approval, before increasing to 120 minutes after the total A330 fleet accumulated 25,000 flight hours, and then to 180 minutes after 50,000 flight hours, in 1995. Aer Lingus and Cathay Pacific were two important airlines assisting Airbus in this endeavour by building up in-service flight hours on over-ocean flights. In November 2009, the A330 became the first aircraft to receive ETOPS–240 approval, which has since been offered by Airbus as an option.

Further developments

In response to a decline in A330-300 sales, increased market penetration by the Boeing 767-300ER, and airline requests for increased range and smaller aircraft, Airbus developed the Airbus A330-200. Known as the A329 and A330M10 during development, the A330-200 would offer nine per cent lower operating costs than the Boeing 767-300ER. The plane was aimed at the 11,900 km (6,430 nmi; 7,390 mi) sector, where Airbus predicted demand for 800 aircraft between 1995 and 2015. The project, with US$450 million in expected development costs, was approved by the Airbus Industrie Supervisory Board on 24 November 1995.

A Middle East Airlines A330-243 touching down at London Heathrow Airport in 2016

The A330-200 first flew on 13 August 1997. The sixteen-month certification process involved logging 630 hours of test flights. The A330-200’s first customer was ILFC; these aircraft were leased by Canada 3000, who became the type’s first operator.

As Airbus worked on its A330-200, hydraulic pump problems were reported by both A330 and A340 operators. This issue was the suspected cause of a fire that destroyed an Air France A340-200 in January 1994. On 4 January of that year, a Malaysia Airlines A330-300, while undergoing regular maintenance at Singapore Changi Airport, was consumed by a fire that started in the right-hand main undercarriage well. The incident caused US$30 million in damage, and the aircraft took six months to repair. Consequently, operators were advised to disable electrical pumps in January 1997.

Several in-flight shutdowns of Trent 700–powered A330-300s occurred. On 11 November 1996, engine failure on a Cathay Pacific flight forced it back to Ho Chi Minh City. On 17 April 1997, Cathay Pacific’s subsidiary Dragonair experienced an engine shutdown on an A330, caused by carbon clogging the oil filter. As a result, Cathay Pacific self-suspended its 120-minute ETOPS clearance. Another engine failure occurred on 6 May during climbout with a Cathay Pacific A330, due to a bearing failure in a Hispano-Suiza-built gearbox. Three days later, a Cathay Pacific A330 on climbout during a Bangkok–Hong Kong flight experienced an oil pressure drop and a resultant engine spool down, forcing a return to Bangkok. The cause was traced to metal contamination in the engine’s master chip. Following a fifth engine failure on 23 May, Cathay Pacific and Dragonair voluntarily grounded their A330 fleets for two weeks, causing major disruption as Cathay’s eleven A330s made up fifteen per cent of its passenger capacity.[64] Rolls-Royce and Hispano-Suiza developed a redesigned lubrication system to resolve the problem.

A A330-200F in Airbus's white and blue livery on display under a partly cloudy but otherwise clear sky. The engine inlets are covered.

The freighter variant, the A330-200F, debuts at the Singapore Airshow 2010.

Responding to lagging A300-600F and A310F sales, Airbus began marketing the Airbus A330-200F, a freighter derivative of the A330-200, around 2001. The freighter has a range of 7,400 km (4,000 nmi; 4,600 mi) with a 65 tonnes (140,000 lb) payload, or 5,900 km (3,200 nmi; 3,700 mi) with 70 tonnes (150,000 lb). The plane utilises the same nosegear as the passenger version, however it is attached lower in the fuselage and housed in a distinctive bulbous “blister fairing”. This raises the aircraft’s nose so that the cargo deck is level during loading, as the standard A330’s landing gear results the plane having a nose-down attitude while on the ground.

The A330-200F made its maiden flight on 5 November 2009. This marked the start of a four-month, 180-hour certification programme. JAA and FAA certifications were expected by March the following year although approval by the JAA was delayed until April. The first delivery was subsequently made to the Etihad Airways cargo division, Etihad Cargo, in July 2010.

Airbus announced in February 2011 that it intended to raise production rates from seven-and-a-half to eight per month to nine per month in 2012, and ten per month in 2013. Production increased to 10 aircraft per month in April 2013, the highest for an Airbus widebody aircraft. In 2012, Airbus expected the A330 to continue selling until at least 2020, with the A350-900 expected to replace the A330-300.

Air China A330-243 taking off from Munich Airport.

On 19 July 2013, Airbus delivered the 1000th A330 to Cathay Pacific. It is the first Airbus wide-body airliner to reach 1,000 deliveries, and the fourth wide-body to achieve the milestone after the Boeing 747, 767 and 777. As of January 2017, a total of 1,472 A330ceos had been ordered, with 1,326 delivered.

On 25 September 2013 at the Aviation Expo China (Beijing Airshow), Airbus announced a new lower weight A330-300 variant, optimised for use on domestic and regional routes in high growth markets with large populations and concentrated traffic flows; China and India were recognised as prime targets. This variant could carry up to 400 passengers. The increased efficiency, however, comes more from the installation of more seats than any weight reduction. On relatively short, yet congested routes, the A330 competes against single-aisle jetliners. While the A330’s operating costs in those conditions is not far above those of the Boeing 737 or Airbus A321, the A320neo and 737 MAX promise more efficiency. Where the frequency of flights cannot be increased, using larger aircraft, such as the A330, is the only available option to increase capacity. The first customer for the A330 regional was announced as Saudia at the 2015 Paris Air Show.

In December 2014, Airbus announced that it would reduce A330 production to nine aircraft per month from ten, because of falling orders. Airbus did not rule out further production cuts. The announcement led to an immediate drop in Airbus Group’s stock price because the company derives a significant percentage of its cash flow and net profit from the A330 program; the A330’s financial impact is magnified amid problems in the A350 and A380 programs. In February 2015, Airbus announced another production rate cut to six aircraft per month beginning in the first quarter of 2016. This extends A330ceo production to July 2017, allowing for a smooth transition to A330neo production, which is set to start in Spring 2017. In February 2016 Airbus announced, that it will re-increase the production rate from 6 to 7 per month, as response to new A330 orders.

A330neo

Main article: Airbus A330neo

The A330neo (“neo” for “New Engine Option”) is a development from the initial A330 (now A330ceo – “Current Engine Option”). A new version with modern engines developed for the Boeing 787 was called for by owners of the current A330. It was launched in July 2014 at the Farnborough Airshow, promising 14% better fuel economy per seat. It will use exclusively the larger Rolls-Royce Trent 7000. Its two versions are based on the A330-200 and -300 : the -800 should cover 7,500 nmi (13,900 km) with 257 passengers while the -900 should cover 6,550 nmi (12,130 km) with 287 passengers. The -900 should be introduced at the end of 2017.

Design

The A330 is a medium-size, wide-body airliner, with two engines suspended on pylons under the wings. A two-wheel nose undercarriage and two four-wheel bogie main legs built by Messier-Dowty support the airplane on the ground. Its maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) grew from 212 tonnes (467,000 lb) at introduction to 242 tonnes (534,000 lb) in 2015, enhancing its payload-range performance, with a 0.9 tonnes (1,980 lb) heavier Maximum Ramp Weight (MRW).

The airframe of the A330 features a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a wing virtually identical to that of the A340. The wings were designed and manufactured by BAe, which developed a long slender wing with a very high aspect ratio to provide high aerodynamic efficiency. The wing is swept back at 30 degrees and, along with other design features, allows a maximum operating Mach number of 0.86. The wing has a very high thickness-to-chord ratio of 12.8 per cent, which means that a long span and high aspect ratio can be attained without a severe weight penalty. For comparison, the rival MD-11 has a thickness-to-chord ratio of 8–9 per cent. Each wing also has a 2.74 m (8.99 ft) tall winglet instead of the wingtip fences found on earlier Airbus aircraft.

The shared wing design with the A340 allowed the A330 to incorporate aerodynamic features developed for the former aircraft. The failure of International Aero Engines’ radical ultra-high-bypass V2500 “SuperFan”, which had promised around 15 per cent fuel burn reduction for the A340, led to multiple enhancements including wing upgrades to compensate. Originally designed with a 56 m (180 ft) span, the wing was later extended to 58.6 m (190 ft) and finally to 60.3 m (200 ft). At 60.3 m (200 ft), the wingspan is similar to that of the larger Boeing 747–200, but with 35 percent less wing area.

Cockpit of the A330. All instruments and displays are switched on. Two seats occupy both sides of the cockpit, separated by a centre console.

The A330/A340 cockpit used the A320’s six-screen design.

The A330 and A340 fuselage is based on that of the Airbus A300-600, with many common parts, and has the same external and cabin width: 5.64 m (19 ft) and 5.28 m (17 ft). Typical seating arrangements are 2–2–2 six-abreast in business class and 2–4–2 eight-abreast in economy class.[98] The fin, rudder, elevators, horizontal tail plane used as fuel tank, flaps, ailerons and spoilers are made of composite materials, making 10% of the structure weight When necessary, the A330 uses the Honeywell 331–350C auxiliary power unit (APU) to provide pneumatics and electrical power.

The A330 shares the same glass cockpit flight deck layout as the A320 and A340, featuring electronic instrument displays rather than mechanical gauges. Instead of a conventional control yoke, the flight deck features side-stick controls, six main displays, and the Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), which covers navigation and flight displays, as well as the Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM). Apart from the flight deck, the A330 also has the fly-by-wire system common to the A320 family, the A340, the A350, and the A380. It also features three primary and two secondary flight control systems, as well as a flight envelope limit protection system which prevents manoeuvres from exceeding the aircraft’s aerodynamic and structural limits.

A330-300

A white A330 with a blue underside and red markings is seen taking off against a dark and cloudy overcast; the undercarriage are retracting.

An A330-300, the original variant, of US Airways taking off

Powered by two General Electric CF6-80E1, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines, the 63.69 m (208 ft 11 in) long −300 has a range of 11,750 km / 6,350 nmi, typically carries 277 passengers with a 440 exit limit and 32 LD3 containers. It received European and American certification on 21 October 1993 after 420 test flights over 1,100 hours.[116] The −300 entered service on 16 January 1994. The A330-300 is based on a stretched A300 fuselage but with new wings, stabilisers and fly-by-wire systems.

In 2010 Airbus offered a new version of the −300 with the maximum gross weight increased by two tonnes to 235 t. This enabled 120 nmi extension of the range as well as 1.2 t increase in payload. In mid-2012, Airbus proposed another increase of the maximum gross weight to 240 t. It is planned to be implemented by mid-2015. This −300 version will have the range extended by 400 nmi and will carry 5 t more payload. It will include engine and aerodynamic improvements reducing its fuel burn by about 2%. In November 2012, it was further announced that the gross weight will increase from 235 t to 242 t, and the range will increase by 500 nmi or 926 km or 575 mi to 6,100 nmi (11,300 km; 7,020 mi). Airbus is also planning to activate the central fuel tank for the first time for the −300 model.

As of January 2017, 782 -300s had been ordered, 687 of which had been delivered, with 667 in operation. The 2015 list price is $253.7 million. The closest competitors have been the Boeing 777-200/200ER, and the now out-of-production McDonnell Douglas MD-11.

A330-300HGW

In 2000, it was reported that Airbus was studying an A330-300 version with a higher gross weight. It was named A330-300HGW and had a takeoff weight of 240 tonnes (530,000 lb), 7 tonnes (15,000 lb) greater than the −300’s weight at the time. The version would have a strengthened wing and additional fuel capacity from a 41,600-litre (11,000 US gal) centre section fuel tank. The A330-300HGW’s range was increased to over 11,000 km (5,940 nmi; 6,840 mi). Among those that showed interest was leasing company ILFC, which sought airliners that could fly from the US West Coast to Europe.

Power was to be supplied by all three engines offered to A330-200 and A330-300 with lower gross weight. Airbus also considered using the new Engine Alliance GP7000 engine for the A330-300HGW, which would have been the engine’s first twinjet application. The −300HGW was to enter airline service in 2004. However, the -300HGW programme was not launched and quietly disappeared.

The 240-tonne A330 reappear years later when Airbus announced at the 2012 Farnborough Airshow that it would be an available option for both the A330-300 and the A330-200.[118][121] In November 2012, the maximum take off weight was further increased to 242 tonnes; the first of these aircraft was to enter service with Delta Air Lines in Q2 2015.

Specifications

Source, unless noted : Airplane Characteristics – Airport and Maintenance Planning[189]
A330-200 A330-200F A330-300
Cockpit crew Two
Capacity 246 (36J @ 60 in + 210Y @ 32 in)
exit limit 375/406
Max Payload: 70,000 kg (154,324 lb) 300 (36J @ 60 in + 264Y @ 32 in)
exit limit 375/440
Length 58.82 m (192.98 ft) 63.67 m (208.89 ft)
Wingspan 60.3 m (197.83 ft)
Wing area 361.6 m² (3,892 ft²)
Aspect ratio 10.06
25% chord wingsweep 30°
Tail height 17.39 m (57 ft 1 in) 16.88 m (55 ft 5 in) 16.83 m (55 ft 3 in)
Cabin width 5.18 m (204 in)
Seat width 0.46 m (18 in) in 8 abreast economy
0.53 m (21 in) in 6 abreast business
Fuselage width 5.64 m (222 in)
Fuselage height 5.64 m (18.5 ft)
Main gear wheel span 12.61 m (41.37 ft)
Usable cargo volume 132.4 m³ (4673 ft³) 469.2 m³ (16567 ft³) 158.4 m³ (5591 ft³)
Maximum takeoff weight 242,000 kg (533,519 lb) 233,000 kg (513,677 lb) 242,000 kg (533,519 lb)
Maximum landing weight 182,000 kg (401,241 lb) 187,000 kg (412,264 lb)
Max zero fuel weight 170,000 kg (374,786 lb) 178,000 kg (392,423 lb) 175,000 kg (385,809 lb)
Usable fuel capacity 139,090 l (36,744 US gal) – 109,185 kg (240,711 lb)
Operating empty weight 120,150-120,750 kg (264,875-266,200 lb) 108000 kg (238099 lb) 121,870-122,780 kg (268,675-270,675 lb)
Service ceiling 12,500 m (41,100 ft)
Cruise speed Mach 0.82 (470 kn; 871 km/h)
Mach Maximum Operating Mach 0.86 (493 kn; 914 km/h)
Final approach speed (MLW) 136 kn (252 km/h) 139 kn (257 km/h) 137 kn (254 km/h)
Maximum range, fully loaded 13,450 km (7,250 nm) with 247 pax 7,400 km (4,000 nm) 11,750 km (6,350 nm) with 277 pax
Takeoff run (SL, ISA, MTOW) 2,770 m (9,110 ft)
Landing run (SL, ISA, MLW) 1,730 m (5,680 ft)
Engines (×2)[190] 64,530–68,530 lbf (287–305 kN) General Electric CF6-80E1 (except -200F)
64,500–70,000 lbf (287–311 kN) Pratt & Whitney PW4000 PW4164/PW4168/PW4170
67,500–71,100 lbf (300–316 kN) Rolls-Royce Trent 700 768/772

Aircraft model designations

A330 family schematic
EASA Type Certificate Data Sheet
Model Certification Date Engines
A330-201 31 October 2002 General Electric CF6-80E1A2
A330-202 31 March 1998 General Electric CF6-80E1A4
A330-203 20 November 2001 General Electric CF6-80E1A3
A330-223 13 July 1998 Pratt & Whitney PW4168A/4170
A330-223F 9 April 2010 Pratt & Whitney PW4170 (Freighter)
A330-243 11 January 1999 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B/C-60
A330-243F 9 April 2010 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B-60 (Freighter)
A330-301 21 October 1993 General Electric CF6-80E1A2
A330-302 17 May 2004 General Electric CF6-80E1A4
A330-303 17 May 2004 General Electric CF6-80E1A3
A330-321 2 June 1994 Pratt & Whitney PW4164
A330-322 2 June 1994 Pratt & Whitney PW4168
A330-323 22 April 1999 Pratt & Whitney PW4168A/4170
A330-341 22 December 1994 Rolls-Royce Trent 768-60
A330-342 22 December 1994 Rolls-Royce Trent 772-60
A330-343 13 September 1999 Rolls-Royce Trent 772B/C-60

ICAO Aircraft Type Designators

Designation Type
A332 Airbus A330-200, Airbus A330-200F
A333 Airbus A330-300
Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first “Super Jumbo” Aircraft for “IKA” Airport Base

Qeshm Virtual Air has purchased first “Super Jumbo” Aircraft for “IKA” Airport Base

The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by European Union manufacturer Airbus.[4][5][6] It is the world’s largest passenger airliner, and the airports at which it operates have upgraded facilities to accommodate it. It was initially named Airbus A3XX and designed to challenge Boeing’s monopoly in the large-aircraft market. The A380 made its first flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service in 25 October 2007 with Singapore Airlines.

The A380’s upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage, with a width equivalent to a wide-body aircraft. This gives the A380-800’s cabin 550 square metres (5,920 sq ft) of usable floor space,[7] 40% more than the next largest airliner, the Boeing 747-8,[8] and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in an all-economy class configuration. The A380-800 has a design range of 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km), serving the second longest non-stop scheduled flight in the world, and a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 (about 900 km/h, 560 mph or 490 kt at cruising altitude).

As of September 2016, Airbus had received 319 firm orders and delivered 195 aircraft; Emirates is the biggest A380 customer with 142 ordered of which 83 have been delivered.[2] Thai Airways International, British Airways, Qantas, Asiana Airlines, Qatar Airways, Etihad Airways and Air France are other operators.

Background

In mid-1988, Airbus engineers led by Jean Roeder began work in secret on the development of an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA), both to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance that Boeing had enjoyed in this market segment since the early 1970s with its 747.[9] McDonnell Douglas unsuccessfully offered its smaller, double-deck MD-12 concept for sale.[10][11] Roeder was given approval for further evaluations of the UHCA after a formal presentation to the President and CEO in June 1990. The megaproject was announced at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400.[12] Airbus organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, British Aerospace, Deutsche Aerospace AG, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. The designs were presented in 1992 and the most competitive designs were used.[13]

In January 1993, Boeing and several companies in the Airbus consortium started a joint feasibility study of a Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT), aiming to form a partnership to share the limited market.[14][15] This joint study was abandoned two years later, Boeing’s interest having declined because analysts thought that such a product was unlikely to cover the projected $15 billion development cost. Despite the fact that only two airlines had expressed public interest in purchasing such a plane, Airbus was already pursuing its own large plane project. Analysts suggested that Boeing would instead pursue stretching its 747 design, and that air travel was already moving away from the hub and spoke system that consolidated traffic into large planes, and toward more non-stop routes that could be served by smaller planes.[16]

The first completed A380 at the “A380 Reveal” event in Toulouse, France, 18 January 2005

In June 1994, Airbus announced its plan to develop its own very large airliner, designated the A3XX.[17][18] Airbus considered several designs, including an unusual side-by-side combination of two fuselages from its A340, the largest Airbus jet at the time.[19] The A3XX was pitted against the VLCT study and Boeing’s own New Large Aircraft successor to the 747.[20][21] From 1997 to 2000, as the East Asian financial crisis darkened the market outlook, Airbus refined its design, targeting a 15–20% reduction in operating costs over the existing Boeing 747-400. The A3XX design converged on a double-decker layout that provided more passenger volume than a traditional single-deck design,[22][23] in line with traditional hub-and-spoke theory as opposed to the point-to-point theory with the Boeing 777,[24] after conducting an extensive market analysis with over 200 focus groups.[25][26] Although early marketing of the huge cross-section touted the possibility of duty-free shops, restaurant-like dining, gyms, casinos & beauty parlours on board, the realities of airline economics have kept such dreams grounded.

On 19 December 2000, the supervisory board of newly restructured Airbus voted to launch an €8.8-billion programme to build the A3XX, re-christened as the A380,[27][28] with 50 firm orders from six launch customers.[29][30] The A380 designation was a break from previous Airbus families, which had progressed sequentially from A300 to A340. It was chosen because the number 8 resembles the double-deck cross section, and is a lucky number in some Asian countries where the aircraft was being marketed.[19] The aircraft configuration was finalised in early 2001, and manufacturing of the first A380 wing box component started on 23 January 2002. The development cost of the A380 had grown to €11-14[31] billion when the first aircraft was completed.

Production

Diagram showing flow of aircraft part in western Europe. Land is white, sea is pale blue

Geographical logistics sequence for the A380, with final assembly in Toulouse

Major structural sections of the A380 are built in France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Due to the sections’ large size, traditional transportation methods proved unfeasible,[32] so they are brought to the Jean-Luc Lagardère Plant assembly hall in Toulouse, France, by specialised surface transportation, though some parts are moved by the A300-600ST Beluga transport aircraft, which is also used in the movement of other Airbus model components.[33] A380 components are provided by suppliers from around the world; the four largest contributors, by value, are Rolls-Royce, Safran, United Technologies and General Electric.[25]

For the surface movement of large A380 structural components, a complex route known as the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit was developed. This involved the construction of a fleet of roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships and barges, the construction of port facilities and the development of new and modified roads to accommodate oversized road convoys.[34] The front and rear fuselage sections are shipped on one of three RORO ships from Hamburg in northern Germany to the United Kingdom.[35] The wings are manufactured at Broughton in North Wales, then transported by barge to Mostyn docks for ship transport.[36]

A380 components on a barge

In Saint-Nazaire in western France, the ship exchanges the fuselage sections from Hamburg for larger, assembled sections, some of which include the nose. The ship unloads in Bordeaux. The ship then picks up the belly and tail sections from Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in Cádiz in southern Spain, and delivers them to Bordeaux. From there, the A380 parts are transported by barge to Langon, and by oversize road convoys to the assembly hall in Toulouse.[37] In order to avoid damage from direct handling, parts are secured in custom jigs carried on self-powered wheeled vehicles.[32]

After assembly, the aircraft are flown to Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (XFW) to be furnished and painted. Airbus sized the production facilities and supply chain for a production rate of four A380s per month.[36]

Testing

A380 prototype on its maiden flight

Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes.[38] The first A380, registered F-WWOW, was unveiled in Toulouse 18 January 2005.[39] It first flew on 27 April 2005.[40] This plane, equipped with Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engines, flew from Toulouse Blagnac International Airport with a crew of six headed by chief test pilot Jacques Rosay.[41] Rosay said flying the A380 had been “like handling a bicycle”.[42]

On 1 December 2005, the A380 achieved its maximum design speed of Mach 0.96, (its design cruise speed is Mach 0.85) in a shallow dive.[38] In 2006, the A380 flew its first high-altitude test at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa. It conducted its second high-altitude test at the same airport in 2009.[43] On 10 January 2006, it flew to José María Córdova International Airport in Colombia, accomplishing the transatlantic testing, and then it went to El Dorado International Airport to test the engine operation in high-altitude airports. It arrived in North America on 6 February 2006, landing in Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada for cold-weather testing.[44]

Flight test engineer’s station on the lower deck of A380 F-WWOW

On 14 February 2006, during the destructive wing strength certification test on MSN5000, the test wing of the A380 failed at 145% of the limit load, short of the required 150% level. Airbus announced modifications adding 30 kg (66 lb) to the wing to provide the required strength.[45] On 26 March 2006, the A380 underwent evacuation certification in Hamburg. With 8 of the 16 exits arbitrarily blocked, 853 mixed passengers and 20 crew exited the darkened aircraft in 78 seconds, less than the 90 seconds required for certification.[46][47] Three days later, the A380 received European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to carry up to 853 passengers.[48]

The first A380 using GP7200 engines—serial number MSN009 and registration F-WWEA—flew on 25 August 2006.[49][50] On 4 September 2006, the first full passenger-carrying flight test took place.[51] The aircraft flew from Toulouse with 474 Airbus employees on board, in a test of passenger facilities and comfort.[51] In November 2006, a further series of route-proving flights demonstrated the aircraft’s performance for 150 flight hours under typical airline operating conditions.[52] As of 2014, the A380 test aircraft continue to perform test procedures.[53]

Airbus obtained type certificates for the A380-841 and A380-842 model from the EASA and FAA on 12 December 2006 in a joint ceremony at the company’s French headquarters,[54][55] receiving the ICAO code A388.[56] The A380-861 model obtained its type certificate on 14 December 2007.[55]

Production and delivery delays

Initial production of the A380 was troubled by delays attributed to the 530 km (330 mi) of wiring in each aircraft. Airbus cited as underlying causes the complexity of the cabin wiring (98,000 wires and 40,000 connectors), its concurrent design and production, the high degree of customisation for each airline, and failures of configuration management and change control.[57][58] The German and Spanish Airbus facilities continued to use CATIA version 4, while British and French sites migrated to version 5.[59] This caused overall configuration management problems, at least in part because wire harnesses manufactured using aluminium rather than copper conductors necessitated special design rules including non-standard dimensions and bend radii; these were not easily transferred between versions of the software.[60]

A380 in original Airbus livery

Airbus announced the first delay in June 2005 and notified airlines that deliveries would be delayed by six months.[59] This reduced the total number of planned deliveries by the end of 2009 from about 120 to 90–100. On 13 June 2006, Airbus announced a second delay, with the delivery schedule slipping an additional six to seven months.[61] Although the first delivery was still planned before the end of 2006, deliveries in 2007 would drop to only 9 aircraft, and deliveries by the end of 2009 would be cut to 70–80 aircraft. The announcement caused a 26% drop in the share price of Airbus’ parent, EADS,[62] and led to the departure of EADS CEO Noël Forgeard, Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert, and A380 programme manager Charles Champion.[59][63] On 3 October 2006, upon completion of a review of the A380 program, Airbus CEO Christian Streiff announced a third delay,[59] pushing the first delivery to October 2007, to be followed by 13 deliveries in 2008, 25 in 2009, and the full production rate of 45 aircraft per year in 2010.[64] The delay also increased the earnings shortfall projected by Airbus through 2010 to €4.8 billion.[59][65]

As Airbus prioritised the work on the A380-800 over the A380F,[66] freighter orders were cancelled by FedEx[67][68] and UPS,[69] or converted to A380-800 by Emirates and ILFC.[70] Airbus suspended work on the freighter version, but said it remained on offer,[71] albeit without a service entry date.[72] For the passenger version Airbus negotiated a revised delivery schedule and compensation with the 13 customers, all of which retained their orders with some placing subsequent orders, including Emirates,[73] Singapore Airlines,[74] Qantas,[75] Air France,[76] Qatar Airways,[77] and Korean Air.[78]

On 13 May 2008, Airbus announced reduced deliveries for the years 2008 (12) and 2009 (21).[79] After further manufacturing setbacks, Airbus announced its plan to deliver 14 A380s in 2009, down from the previously revised target of 18.[80] A total of 10 A380s were delivered in 2009.[81] In 2010 Airbus delivered 18 of the expected 20 A380s, due to Rolls-Royce engine availability problems.[82] Airbus planned to deliver “between 20 and 25” A380s in 2011 before ramping up to three a month in 2012.[82] In fact, Airbus delivered 26 units, thus outdoing its predicted output for the first time. As of July 2012, production was 3 aircraft per month. Among the production problems are challenging interiors, interiors being installed sequentially rather than concurrently as in smaller planes, and union/government objections to streamlining.[83]

At the July 2016 Farnborough Airshow Airbus announced that in a “prudent, proactive step,” starting in 2018 it expects to deliver 12 A380 aircraft per year, down from 27 deliveries in 2015. The firm also warned production might slip back into red ink on each aircraft produced at that time, though it anticipates production will remain in the black for 2016 and 2017. “The company will continue to improve the efficiency of its industrial system to achieve breakeven at 20 aircraft in 2017 and targets additional cost reduction initiatives to lower breakeven further.”[84][85] Airbus expects that healthy demand for its other aircraft would allow it to avoid job losses from the cuts.[86][87]

Entry into service

An Emirates A380 on approach to Paris CDG

Nicknamed Superjumbo,[88] the first A380, MSN003, (registered as 9V-SKA) was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October 2007 with flight number SQ380 between Singapore and Sydney.[15][89] Passengers bought seats in a charity online auction paying between $560 and $100,380.[90] Two months later, Singapore Airlines CEO Chew Choong Seng stated the A380 was performing better than either the airline and Airbus had anticipated, burning 20% less fuel per seat-mile than the airline’s 747-400 fleet.[91] Emirates’ Tim Clark claimed that the A380 has better fuel economy at Mach 0.86 than at 0.83,[92] and that its technical dispatch reliability is at 97%, same as Singapore Airlines. Airbus is committed to reach the industry standard of 98.5%.[93]

A Singapore Airlines A380 at Zürich Airport

Emirates was the second airline to receive the A380 and commenced service between Dubai and New York in August 2008.[94][95] Qantas followed, with flights between Melbourne and Los Angeles in October 2008.[96] By the end of 2008, 890,000 passengers had flown on 2,200 flights.[97]

In February 2009, the one millionth passenger was flown with Singapore Airlines[98] and by May of that year 1,500,000 passengers had flown on 4,200 flights.[99] Air France received its first A380 in October 2009.[100][101] Lufthansa received its first A380 in May 2010.[102] By July 2010, the 31 A380s then in service had transported 6 million passengers on 17,000 flights between 20 international destinations.[103]

Airbus delivered the 100th A380 on 14 March 2013 to Malaysia Airlines.[104] In June 2014, over 65 million passengers had flown the A380,[105] and more than 100 million passengers (averaging 375 per flight) by September 2015, with an availability of 98.5%.[106] In 2014, Emirates stated that their A380 fleet had load factors of 90-100%, and that the popularity of the aircraft with its passengers had not decreased in the past year.[107]

A Qantas A380 taking off

Post-delivery issues

During repairs following the Qantas Flight 32 engine failure incident, cracks were discovered in wing fittings. As a result, the European Aviation Safety Agency issued an Airworthiness Directive in January 2012 which affected 20 A380 aircraft that had accumulated over 1,300 flights.[108] A380s with under 1,800 flight hours were to be inspected within 6 weeks or 84 flights; aircraft with over 1,800 flight hours were to be examined within four days or 14 flights.[109][110][111] Fittings found to be cracked were replaced.[112] On 8 February 2012, the checks were extended to cover all 68 A380 aircraft in operation. The problem is considered to be minor and is not expected to affect operations.[113] EADS acknowledged that the cost of repairs would be over $130 million, to be borne by Airbus. The company said the problem was traced to stress and material used for the fittings.[114] Additionally, major airlines are seeking compensation from Airbus for revenue lost as a result of the cracks and subsequent grounding of fleets.[115] Airbus has switched to a different type of aluminium alloy so aircraft delivered from 2014 onwards should not have this issue.[116]

Airbus is changing about 10% of all doors, as some leak during flight. One occurrence resulted in dropped oxygen masks and an emergency landing. The switch is expected to cost over €100 million. Airbus states that safety is sufficient, as the air pressure pushes the door into the frame.[117][118][119]

Design

Overview

The A380 cabin cross section, showing economy class seating in green

The A380 was initially offered in two models, the A380-800 and the A380F. The A380-800’s original configuration carried 555 passengers in a three-class configuration[120] or 853 passengers (538 on the main deck and 315 on the upper deck) in a single-class economy configuration. Then in May 2007, Airbus began marketing a configuration with 30 fewer passengers, (525 total in three classes), traded for 200 nmi (370 km) more range, to better reflect trends in premium class accommodation.[121] The design range for the −800 model is 8,500 nmi (15,700 km);[122] capable of flying from Hong Kong to New York or from Sydney to Istanbul non-stop. The second model, the A380F freighter, would carry 150 tonnes of cargo with a range of 5,600 nmi (10,400 km).[123] The freighter development was put on hold as Airbus prioritised the passenger version and all cargo orders were cancelled. Future variants may include an A380-900 stretch seating about 656 passengers (or up to 960 passengers in an all economy configuration) and an extended-range version with the same passenger capacity as the A380-800.[19]

Engines

A Engine Alliance GP7000 engine on the wing of a taxiing Emirates A380-800

The A380 is available with two types of turbofan engines, the Rolls-Royce Trent 900 (variants A380-841, −842 and −843F) or the Engine Alliance GP7000 (A380-861 and −863F). The Trent 900 is a derivative of the Trent 800, and the GP7000 has roots from the GE90 and PW4000. The Trent 900 core is a scaled version of the Trent 500, but incorporates the swept fan technology of the stillborn Trent 8104.[124] The GP7200 has a GE90-derived core and PW4090-derived fan and low-pressure turbo-machinery.[125] Noise reduction was an important requirement in the A380 design, and particularly affects engine design.[126][127] Both engine types allow the aircraft to achieve well under the QC/2 departure and QC/0.5 arrival noise limits under the Quota Count system set by London Heathrow Airport,[128] which is a key destination for the A380.[19] The A380 has received an award for its reduced noise.[129] However, field measurements suggest the approach quota allocation for the A380 may be overly generous compared to the older Boeing 747, but still quieter.[130][131] Rolls-Royce is supporting CAA in understanding the relatively high A380/Trent 900 monitored noise levels.[132]

The A380 was initially planned without thrust reversers, incorporating sufficient braking capacity to do without them.[133] However Airbus elected to equip the two inboard engines with thrust reversers in a late stage of development,[134][135] helping the brakes when the runway is slippery. The two outboard engines do not have reversers, reducing the amount of debris stirred up during landing.[136] The A380 has electrically actuated thrust reversers, giving them better reliability than their pneumatic or hydraulic equivalents, in addition to saving weight.[137]

An Airbus A380 of Singapore Airlines

In 2008, the A380 demonstrated the viability of a synthetic fuel comprising standard jet fuel with a natural-gas-derived component. On 1 February 2008, a three-hour test flight operated between Britain and France, with one of the A380’s four engines using a mix of 60% standard jet kerosene and 40% gas to liquids (GTL) fuel supplied by Shell.[138] The aircraft needed no modifications for the GTL fuel, which was designed to be mixed with normal jet fuel. Sebastien Remy, head of Airbus SAS’s alternative fuel programme, said the GTL used was no cleaner in CO2 terms than standard fuel but contains no sulphur, generating air quality benefits.[139]

The auxiliary power comprises the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), the electronic control box (ECB), and mounting hardware. The APU in use on the A380 is the PW 980A APU. The APU primarily provides air to power the Analysis Ground Station (AGS) on the ground and to start the engines. The AGS is a semi-automatic analysis system of flight data that helps to optimise management of maintenance and reduce costs. The APU also powers electric generators which provide auxiliary electric power to the aircraft.[140]

Wings

Airbus A380, Paris-Le Bourget, 2015

The A380’s wing is sized for a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) over 650 tonnes to accommodate these future versions, albeit with some internal strengthening required on the A380F freighter.[19][141] The optimal wingspan for this weight is about 90 m (300 ft), but airport restrictions limited it to less than 80 m (260 ft), lowering aspect ratio to 7.8 which reduces fuel efficiency[142] about 10% and increases operating costs a few percent,[143] given that fuel costs constitute about 50% of the cost of long-haul airplane operation.[144] The common wing design approach sacrifices fuel efficiency (due to a weight penalty) on the A380-800 passenger model, but Airbus estimates that the aircraft’s size, coupled with the uses of advanced technology, will provide lower operating costs per passenger than the 747-400 and older 747 variants. The A380 also includes wingtip devices similar to those found on the A310 and A320 to reduce induced drag, thereby increasing fuel efficiency and range.[145]

Materials

While most of the fuselage is made of aluminium alloys, composite materials comprise more than 20% of the A380’s airframe.[146] Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic, glass-fibre reinforced plastic and quartz-fibre reinforced plastic are used extensively in wings, fuselage sections (such as the undercarriage and rear end of fuselage), tail surfaces, and doors.[147][148][149] The A380 is the first commercial airliner to have a central wing box made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic. It is also the first to have a smoothly contoured wing cross section. The wings of other commercial airliners are partitioned span-wise into sections. This flowing continuous cross section reduces aerodynamic drag. Thermoplastics are used in the leading edges of the slats.[150] The hybrid fibre metal laminate material GLARE (glass laminate aluminium reinforced epoxy) is used in the upper fuselage and on the stabilisers’ leading edges.[151] This aluminium-glass-fibre laminate is lighter and has better corrosion and impact resistance than conventional aluminium alloys used in aviation.[152] Unlike earlier composite materials, GLARE can be repaired using conventional aluminium repair techniques. The application of GLARE on the A380 has a long history, which shows the complex nature of innovations in the aircraft industry.[153][154]

Newer weldable aluminium alloys are used in the A380’s airframe. This enables the widespread use of laser beam welding manufacturing techniques, eliminating rows of rivets and resulting in a lighter, stronger structure.[155] High-strength aluminium (type 7449)[156] reinforced with carbon fibre was used in the wing brackets of the first 120 A380s to reduce weight, but cracks have been discovered and new sets of the more critical brackets will be made of standard aluminium 7010, increasing weight by 90 kg (198 lb).[157] Repair costs for earlier aircraft are expected to be around €500 million (US$629 million).[158]

It takes 3,600 L (950 US gal) of paint to cover the 3,100 m2 (33,000 sq ft) exterior of an A380.[159] The paint is five layers thick and weighs about 650 kg (1,433 lb).[160]

Avionics

The A380 employs an integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture, first used in advanced military aircraft, such as the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II,[161] and Dassault Rafale.[162] The main IMA systems on the A380 were developed by the Thales Group.[163] Designed and developed by Airbus, Thales and Diehl Aerospace, the IMA suite was first used on the A380. The suite is a technological innovation, with networked computing modules to support different applications.[163] The data networks use Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet, an implementation of ARINC 664. These are switched, full-duplex, star-topology and based on 100baseTX fast-Ethernet.[164] This reduces the amount of wiring required and minimises latency.[165]

Port view of front fuselage, with staircase

Front fuselage view of A380

Airbus used similar cockpit layout, procedures and handling characteristics to other Airbus aircraft, reducing crew training costs. The A380 has an improved glass cockpit, using fly-by-wire flight controls linked to side-sticks.[166][167] The cockpit has eight 15 by 20 cm (5.9 by 7.9 in) liquid crystal displays, all physically identical and interchangeable; comprising two primary flight displays, two navigation displays, one engine parameter display, one system display and two multi-function displays. The MFDs were introduced on the A380 to provide an easy-to-use interface to the flight management system—replacing three multifunction control and display units.[168] They include QWERTY keyboards and trackballs, interfacing with a graphical “point-and-click” display system.[169][170]

The Network Systems Server (NSS) is the heart of A380’s paperless cockpit; it eliminates bulky manuals and charts traditionally used.[171][172] The NSS has enough inbuilt robustness to eliminate onboard backup paper documents. The A380’s network and server system stores data and offers electronic documentation, providing a required equipment list, navigation charts, performance calculations, and an aircraft logbook. This is accessed through the MFDs and controlled via the keyboard interface.[165]

A380 flight deck

Power-by-wire flight control actuators have been used for the first time in civil aviation to back up primary hydraulic actuators. Also, during certain manoeuvres they augment the primary actuators.[173] They have self-contained hydraulic and electrical power supplies. Electro-hydrostatic actuators (EHA) are used in the aileron and elevator, electric and hydraulic motors to drive the slats as well as electrical backup hydrostatic actuators (EBHA) for the rudder and some spoilers.[174]

The A380’s 350 bar (35 MPa or 5,000 psi) hydraulic system is a significant difference from the typical 210 bar (21 MPa or 3,000 psi) hydraulics used on most commercial aircraft since the 1940s.[175][176] First used in military aircraft, high-pressure hydraulics reduce the weight and size of pipelines, actuators and related components. The 350 bar pressure is generated by eight de-clutchable hydraulic pumps.[176][177] The hydraulic lines are typically made from titanium; the system features both fuel- and air-cooled heat exchangers. Self-contained electrically powered hydraulic power packs serve as backups for the primary systems, instead of a secondary hydraulic system, saving weight and reducing maintenance.[178]

The A380 uses four 150 kVA variable-frequency electrical generators,[179] eliminating constant-speed drives and improving reliability.[180] The A380 uses aluminium power cables instead of copper for weight reduction. The electrical power system is fully computerised and many contactors and breakers have been replaced by solid-state devices for better performance and increased reliability.[174]

Passenger provisions

Main article: Seat configurations of Airbus A380

Business class on the upper deck of an Emirates A380

The cabin has features to reduce traveller fatigue such as a quieter interior and higher pressurisation than previous generation of aircraft; the A380 is pressurised to the equivalent altitude of 1,520 m (5,000 ft) up to 12,000 m (39,000 ft).[181][182] It has 50% less cabin noise, 50% more cabin area and volume, larger windows, bigger overhead bins, and 60 cm (2.0 ft) extra headroom versus the 747-400.[183][184] Seating options range from 3-room 12 m2 (130 sq ft) “residence” in first class to 11-across in economy.[185] On other aircraft, economy seats range from 41.5 cm (16.3 in) to 52.3 cm (20.6 in) in width,[186] A380 economy seats are up to 48 cm (19 in) wide in a 10-abreast configuration;[187] compared with the 10-abreast configuration on the 747-400 which typically has seats 44.5 cm (17.5 in) wide.[188]

Economy class on the main deck of an Air France A380

The A380’s upper and lower decks are connected by two stairways, fore and aft, wide enough to accommodate two passengers side-by-side; this cabin arrangement allows multiple seat configurations. The maximum certified carrying capacity is 853 passengers in an all-economy-class layout,[46] Airbus lists the “typical” three-class layout as accommodating 525 passengers, with 10 first, 76 business, and 439 economy class seats.[121] Airline configurations range from Korean Air’s 407 passengers to Emirates’ two-class 615 seats for Copenhagen,[189] and average around 480–490 seats.[190][191] The Air Austral’s proposed 840 passenger layout has not come to fruition. The A380’s interior illumination system uses bulbless LEDs in the cabin, cockpit, and cargo decks. The LEDs in the cabin can be altered to create an ambience simulating daylight, night, or intermediate levels.[192] On the outside of the aircraft, HID lighting is used for brighter illumination.

Airbus’s publicity has stressed the comfort and space of the A380 cabin,[193] and advertised onboard relaxation areas such as bars, beauty salons, duty-free shops, and restaurants.[194][195] Proposed amenities resembled those installed on earlier airliners, particularly 1970s wide-body jets,[196] which largely gave way to regular seats for more passenger capacity.[196] Airbus has acknowledged that some cabin proposals were unlikely to be installed,[195] and that it was ultimately the airlines’ decision how to configure the interior.[196] Industry analysts suggested that implementing customisation has slowed the production speeds, and raised costs.[197] Due to delivery delays, Singapore Airlines and Air France debuted their seat designs on different aircraft prior to the A380.[198][199]

Bar on an Emirates A380. There are illuminated Burj Al Arab and Palm Jumeirah motifs on the left and right.

Initial operators typically configured their A380s for three-class service, while adding extra features for passengers in premium cabins. Launch customer Singapore Airlines introduced partly enclosed first class suites on its A380s in 2007, each featuring a leather seat with a separate bed; center suites could be joined to create a double bed.[200][201][202] A year later, Qantas debuted a new first class seat-bed and a sofa lounge at the front of the upper deck on its A380s,[203][204] and in 2009 Air France unveiled an upper deck electronic art gallery.[205] In late 2008, Emirates introduced “shower spas” in first class on its A380s allowing each first class passenger five minutes of hot water,[206][207] drawing on 2.5 tonnes of water although only 60% of it was used.[107] Emirates,[208][209] Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways also have a bar lounge and seating area on the upper deck, while Etihad has enclosed areas for two people each.[210] In addition to lounge areas, some A380 operators have installed amenities consistent with other aircraft in their respective fleets, including self-serve snack bars,[211] premium economy sections,[199] and redesigned business class seating.[198] The Hamburg Aircraft Interiors Expo in April 2015 saw the presentation of an 11-seat row economy cabin for the A380. Airbus is reacting to a changing economy; the recession which began in 2008 saw a drop in market percentage of first class and business seats to six percent and an increase in budget economy travelers. Among other causes is the reluctance of employers to pay for executives to travel in First or Business Class. Airbus’ chief of cabin marketing, Ingo Wuggestzer, told Aviation Week and Space Technology that the standard three class cabin no longer reflected market conditions. The 11 seat row on the A380 is accompanied by similar options on other widebodies: nine across on the Airbus A330 and ten across on the A350.[212]

After Malaysia Airlines did not suceed to sell or lease its 6 aircraft, they will refurbish it for 700 seats and will transfer them to a subsidiary carrier focused on religious pilgrimage flights.[213]

Integration with infrastructure and regulations

Ground operations

An A380 served by three separate jetways at Frankfurt Airport in 2007: two for the main deck and one for the upper deck

Aircraft ground handling of a Lufthansa Airbus A380-841 at Frankfurt Airport, Germany

In the 1990s, aircraft manufacturers were planning to introduce larger planes than the Boeing 747. In a common effort of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO, with manufacturers, airports and its member agencies, the “80-metre box” was created, the airport gates allowing planes up to 80 m (260 ft) wingspan and length to be accommodated.[214] Airbus designed the A380 according to these guidelines,[215][216] and to operate safely on Group V runways and taxiways with a 60 metres (200 ft) loadbearing width.[217] The US FAA initially opposed this,[218][219] then in July 2007, the FAA and EASA agreed to let the A380 operate on 45 m (148 ft) runways without restrictions.[220] The A380-800 is approximately 30% larger in overall size than the 747-400.[221][222] Runway lighting and signage may need changes to provide clearance to the wings and avoid blast damage from the engines. Runways, runway shoulders and taxiway shoulders may be required to be stabilised to reduce the likelihood of foreign object damage caused to (or by) the outboard engines, which are more than 25 m (82 ft) from the centre line of the aircraft,[215][217][223] compared to 21 m (69 ft) for the 747-400,[224] and 747-8.[225]

A380 20-wheel main landing gear

Airbus measured pavement loads using a 540-tonne (595 short tons) ballasted test rig, designed to replicate the landing gear of the A380. The rig was towed over a section of pavement at Airbus’ facilities that had been instrumented with embedded load sensors.[226] It was determined that the pavement of most runways will not need to be reinforced despite the higher weight,[223] as it is distributed on more wheels than in other passenger aircraft with a total of 22 wheels (that is, its ground pressure is lower).[227] The A380 undercarriage consists of four main landing gear legs and one noseleg (a similar layout to the 747), with the two inboard landing gear legs each supporting six wheels.[227]

The A380 requires service vehicles with lifts capable of reaching the upper deck,[228] as well as tractors capable of handling the A380’s maximum ramp weight.[229] When using two jetway bridges the boarding time is 45 min, and when using an extra jetway to the upper deck it is reduced to 34 min.[230] The A380 has an airport turnaround time of 90–110 minutes.[107] In 2008 the A380 test aircraft were used to trial the modifications made to several airports to accommodate the type.[231]

Takeoff and landing separation

File:A380 takeoff.oggPlay media
A video of an A380 taxiing

In 2005, the ICAO recommended that provisional separation criteria for the A380 on takeoff[232] and landing be substantially greater than for the 747 because preliminary flight test data suggested a stronger wake turbulence.[233][234] These criteria were in effect while the ICAO’s wake vortex steering group, with representatives from the JAA, Eurocontrol, the FAA, and Airbus, refined its 3-year study of the issue with additional flight testing. In September 2006, the working group presented its first conclusions to the ICAO.[235][236]

In November 2006, the ICAO issued new interim recommendations. Replacing a blanket 10 nautical miles (19 km) separation for aircraft trailing an A380 during approach, the new distances were 6 nmi (11 km), 8 nmi (15 km) and 10 nmi (19 km) respectively for non-A380 “Heavy”, “Medium”, and “Light” ICAO aircraft categories. These compared with the 4 nmi (7.4 km), 5 nmi (9.3 km) and 6 nmi (11 km) spacing applicable to other “Heavy” aircraft. Another A380 following an A380 should maintain a separation of 4 nmi (7.4 km). On departure behind an A380, non-A380 “Heavy” aircraft are required to wait two minutes, and “Medium”/”Light” aircraft three minutes for time based operations. The ICAO also recommends that pilots append the term “Super” to the aircraft’s callsign when initiating communication with air traffic control, to distinguish the A380 from “Heavy” aircraft.[237]

In August 2008, the ICAO issued revised approach separations of 4 nmi (7.4 km) for Super (another A380), 6 nmi (11 km) for Heavy, 7 nmi (13 km) for medium/small, and 8 nmi (15 km) for light.[238] In November 2008, an incident on a parallel runway during crosswinds made the Australian authorities change procedures for those conditions.[239]

For takeoff, “Light” and “Medium” aircraft must wait 3 minutes behind an A380 takeoff, compared to the standard 2 minutes for takeoffs behind other aircraft types.

Singapore Airlines describe the A380’s landing speed of 130–135 kn (240–250 km/h) as “impressively slow”.[240]

Maintenance

As the A380 fleet grows older, airworthiness authority rules require certain scheduled inspections from approved aircraft tool shops. The increasing fleet size (to about 286 in 2020) cause expected maintenance and modification to cost $6.8 billion for 2015-2020, of which $2.1 billion are for engines. Emirates performed its first 3C-check for 55 days in 2014. During lengthy shop stays, some airlines will use the opportunity to install new interiors.[241]

Variants

British Airways Airbus A380 arrives London Heathrow Airport, 2015.

Airbus A380-800 operated by Qatar Airways at London Heathrow Airport apron outside Terminal 4 with a wide range of ground handling equipment around such as aircraft container, pallet loader, ULD, jet air starter, belt loader, pushback tug, catering vehicles and dollies.

Singapore Airlines, Qantas Airways, and Emirates Airbus A380s parked at London Heathrow.

Improved A380-800

In 2010, Airbus announced a new A380 build standard, incorporating a strengthened airframe structure and a 1.5° increase in wing twist. Airbus will also offer, as an option, an improved maximum take-off weight, thus providing a better payload/range performance. Maximum take-off weight is increased by 4 t (8,800 lb), to 573 t (1,263,000 lb) and the range is extended by 100 nautical miles (190 km); this is achieved by reducing flight loads, partly from optimising the fly-by-wire control laws.[242] British Airways and Emirates are the first two customers to have received this new option in 2013.[243] Emirates has asked for an update with new engines for the A380 to be competitive with the 777X around 2020, and Airbus is studying 11-abreast seating.[142]

In 2012 Airbus announced another increase in the A380’s maximum take-off weight to 575 t (1,268,000 lb), a 6 t hike on the initial A380 variant and 2 t higher than the increased-weight proposal of 2010. It will stretch the range by some 150 nautical miles (280 km), taking its capability to around 8,350 nautical miles (15,460 km) at current payloads. The higher-weight version was offered for introduction to service early in 2013.[244]

A380-900

In November 2007 Airbus top sales executive and chief operating officer John Leahy confirmed plans for an enlarged variant, the A380-900, with more seating space than the A380-800.[245] This version would have a seating capacity for 650 passengers in standard configuration, and approximately 900 passengers in an economy-only configuration.[246] Airlines that had expressed an interest in the −900 included Emirates,[247] Virgin Atlantic,[248] Cathay Pacific,[249] Air France, KLM, Lufthansa,[250] Kingfisher Airlines,[251] and leasing company ILFC.[252] In May 2010, Airbus announced that A380-900 development was postponed, until production of the A380-800 stabilises.[253]

On 11 December 2014 at the annual Airbus Investor Day forum Airbus CEO controversially announced that “We will one day launch an A380neo and one day launch a stretched A380”[254] following speculation sparked by Airbus CFO Harald Wilhelm that Airbus could axe the A380 ahead of its time due to softening demand.[255] On 15 June 2015, John Leahy, Airbus’s chief operating officer for customers, stated Airbus was looking at the A380-900 programme again. Airbus’s newest concept is a stretch of the A380-800 offering 50 seats more, not 100 as originally envisaged. The stretch would be tied to a potential re-engining of the A380-800. According to FlightGlobal, an A380-900 would make better use of the A380’s existing wing.[256]

A380neo

On 19 July 2015, Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier stated that the company will build a new version of the A380 featuring new improved wings and new engines.[257] Speculation about the development of a so-called A380neo (neo for new engine option) had been going on for a few months after earlier press releases in 2014,[258] and in 2015 the company was considering whether to end production of the type prior to 2018[259] or develop a new A380 variant. Later it was revealed that Airbus was looking at both the possibility of a longer A380 in line of the previously planned A380-900[260] and a new engine version, i.e. A380neo. It was also revealed by Brégier that the new variant would be ready to enter service by 2020.[261] The engine would most likely be one of a variety of all-new options from Rolls-Royce, ranging from derivatives of the A350’s XWB-84/97 to the future Advance project due at around 2020.[262][263]

On 3 June 2016, Emirates President Tim Clark stated that talks between Emirates and Airbus on the A380neo have “lapsed”.[264]

A380F

Airbus originally accepted orders for the freighter version, offering the largest payload capacity of any cargo aircraft in production, exceeded only by the single Antonov An-225 Mriya in service.[265] An aerospace consultant has estimated that the A380F would have 7% better payload and better range than the 747-8F, but also higher trip costs.[266] However, production has been suspended until the A380 production lines have settled with no firm availability date.[66][67][68] In 2015 Airbus removed A380F from the range of freighters on the corporate website.[267] Its maximum payload should be 150 t (330,000 lb) and its range 5,600 nmi (10,400 km).[123]

Market

Prototype at the 2005 Paris Air Show

Airbus A380 at MAKS 2011, Russia

In 2006, industry analysts Philip Lawrence of the Aerospace Research Centre in Bristol and Richard Aboulafia of the consulting Teal Group in Fairfax anticipated 880 and 400 A380 sales respectively by 2025,[25] whereas Airbus and Boeing estimate 1,700 and 700 VLA (very large aircraft; those with more than 400 seats), respectively.[268] According to Lawrence, parallel to the design of the A380, Airbus conducted the most extensive and thorough market analysis of commercial aviation ever undertaken, justifying its VLA plans,[25] while according to Aboulafia, the rise of mid-size aircraft and market fragmentation reduced VLAs to niche market status, making such plans unjustified.[25] The two analysts’ market forecasts differed in the incorporation of spoke-hub and point-to-point models.[25] The difference was illustrated in 2014 when British Airways replaced three B777 flights between London and Los Angeles with two A380, per day.[269]

In contrast, the airline strategy of frequency (offering multiple flights between the same two cities at different times of day) typically relies on smaller aircraft. United Airlines told Reuters that it follows this strategy because it offers business travelers more choices. Moreover, United’s Chief Financial Officer observed that the airline’s Boeing 787 Dreamliners operate at a lower trip cost than the A380. Hence, the A380 “just doesn’t really work for us.”[270][271][272] Operators Air France and China Southern have found that the A380’s capacity is too large for some markets;[273][274] China Southern has faced mounting losses on A380 operations out of its Guangzhou hub,[273] although Emirates’ Tim Clark sees a large potential for Asian A380-users, and criticised Airbus’ marketing efforts.[275] In 2013, Air France withdrew A380 services to Singapore and Montreal and switched to smaller aircraft.[272]

In 2007, Airbus estimated a demand for 1,283 passenger planes in the VLA category for the next 20 years if airport congestion remains at the current level. According to this estimate, demand could reach up to 1,771 VLAs if congestion increases. Most of this demand will be due to the urbanisation and rapid economic growth in Asia.[276] The A380 will be used on relatively few routes, between the most saturated airports; 15 of the world’s 20 biggest airports are saturated.[277] Airbus also estimates a demand for 415 freighters in the category 120-tonne plus. Boeing, which offers the only competition in that class, the 747-8, estimates the demand for passenger VLAs at 590 and that for freighter VLAs at 370 for the period 2007–2026.[278]

At one time the A380 was considered as a potential replacement for the existing Boeing VC-25 serving as Air Force One,[279][280] but in January 2009 EADS declared that they were not going to bid for the contract, as assembling only three planes in the US would not make financial sense.[281]

The break-even for the A380 was initially supposed to be reached by selling 270 units, but due to the delays and the falling exchange rate of the US dollar, it increased to 420 units.[57] In 2010, EADS CFO Hans Peter Ring said that break-even (on the aircraft that are delivered) could be achieved by 2015, despite the delays; there should be around 200 deliveries by that time, on current projections.[282][283] In 2012, Airbus clarified that in 2015, production costs to build the aircraft would be less than the sales price.[83]

As of 2016 the list price of an A380 is US$432.6 million.[284] Negotiated discounts made the actual prices much lower, and industry experts questioned whether the A380 project would ever pay for itself.[83] The first aircraft was sold-and-leased-back by Singapore Airlines in 2007 for $197 million.[285]

On 11 December 2014, after slower than expected orders for the aircraft in 2014, Harald Wilhelm, the company’s Chief Finance Officer, voiced the possibility to end the program in 2018. His statement was met by protests from customers and a fall in share prices.[286][287][288] Airbus responded to the protests by playing down the possibility the A380 would be abandoned, instead emphasizing that enhancing the airplane was a likelier scenario.[289] On 22 December 2014, CEO Fabrice Brégier ruled out the cancellation of the A380 program, stating that it will break even in 2015[290] but also that the A380 was introduced a decade too early.[291] While no longer losing money on each plane sold, Airbus admits that the company will never recoup the $25 billion investment it made in the project.[292]

As of mid-2015, several airlines have expressed their interest in selling their aircraft, partially coinciding with expiring lease contracts for the aircraft. Several A380 which are in service have been offered for lease to other airlines. The suggestion has prompted concerns on the potential for new sales for Airbus, although these were dismissed by Airbus COO John Leahy stated that “Used A380s do not compete with new A380s”, stating that the second-hand market is more interesting for parties otherwise looking to buy smaller aircraft such as the Boeing 777.[293]

On 15 June 2015, Reuters reported that Airbus was discussing a stretched version of the A380 with a half dozen customers. This aircraft, which could also feature new engines, would accommodate an additional fifty passengers. Were this “A380neo” to be built, it would be delivered to customers sometime in 2020 or 2021.[294] On 9 July 2015, Business Insider reported that Airbus had filed a patent application for an A380 “combi” which would offer the flexibility of not only carrying both passengers and cargo, but being rapidly reconfigurable to expand or contract the cargo area and passenger area as needed for a given flight.[295]

An A380’s hourly cost is about $26,000, or around $50 per seat hour, which compares to $44 per seat hour for a Boeing 777-300ER, and $90 per seat hour for a Boeing 747-400 as of November 2015.[296]

Orders and deliveries

Main article: List of Airbus A380 orders and deliveries

A Korean Air Airbus A380 taking off from Hamburg Airport in 2011

A Qatar Airways A380 on final approach to London Heathrow Airport

A Malaysia Airlines Airbus A380

Nineteen customers have ordered the A380. Total orders for the A380 stand at 319 as of August 2016.[2] The biggest customer is Emirates, which has ordered or committed to order a total of 142 A380s as of 30 September 2016.[2][297] One VIP order was made in 2007[298] but later cancelled by Airbus.[299] The A380F version totalled 27 orders before they were either cancelled (20) or converted to A380-800 (7), following the production delay and the subsequent suspension of the freighter programme.

Delivery takes place in Hamburg for customers from Europe and the Middle East and in Toulouse for customers from the rest of the world.[300] EADS explained that deliveries in 2013 were to be slowed temporarily to accommodate replacement of the wing rib brackets where cracks were detected earlier in the existing fleet.[301]

In hopes of raising the number of orders placed, Airbus announced ‘attractable discounts’ to airlines who placed large orders for the A380. Emirates soon after, ordered 50 aircraft, totalling $20.75 billion. Airbus gave a $2.75 billion total discount, equal to $55 million in savings per aircraft for Emirates.[302]

Airbus says that some A380s may not be delivered to customers or even built. This decision came when Airbus had not met the ‘Accord and Satisfaction’ for three already built aircraft for an undisclosed Japanese airline. “Without referring to any specific airline, I can assure you that we have cases where airlines are in the order backlog but not in the production plan,” chief executive officer Tom Enders said in August 2014 during a conference call to discuss earnings with Bloomberg. “We are watching the situation carefully, and know about the strengths and weaknesses of customers.” Among customers that have ordered superjumbos yet remain undecided about actually taking them is Virgin Atlantic, with six units on the order book. Qantas had also planned to top up its existing fleet by as many as eight airplanes, an expansion that has been thrown into doubt amid a cost-cutting drive. Amedeo, an aircraft lessor that ordered 20 A380s, has yet to find a single client for the jet.[303]

A380 firm net orders and deliveries
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Net orders A380-800 78 34 10 10 24 33 9 4 32 19 9 42 13 2 319
A380F 7 10 10 -17 -10
Deliveries A380-800 1 12 10 18 26 30 25 30 27 16 195

Cumulative orders and deliveries

Data from Airbus through the end of September 2016.[2][304]

Orders

Deliveries

Operators

There were 195 aircraft in service with 13 operators as of 30 September 2016.[305]

Emirates is the largest A380 operator with 83 aircraft in service as of September 2016.[305]

Etihad Airways’ first Airbus A380 taking off from London-Heathrow Airport
  • Singapore Airlines first service on 25 October 2007[89]
  • Emirates first service on 1 August 2008[95]
  • Qantas first service on 20 October 2008[96]
  • Air France first service on 20 November 2009[306]
  • Lufthansa first service on 6 June 2010[307]
  • Korean Air first service on 17 June 2011[308]
  • China Southern Airlines first service on 17 October 2011[309][310]
  • Malaysia Airlines first service on 1 July 2012[311]
  • Thai Airways first service on 6 October 2012.[312]
  • British Airways first service on 2 August 2013.[313]
  • Asiana Airlines first service on 13 June 2014[314]
  • Qatar Airways first service on 10 October 2014[315]
  • Etihad Airways first service on 27 December 2014[316]

Notable routes

The shortest regular commercial route that the A380 flies is from Dubai International Airport to Kuwait International Airport (861 km or 535 miles great circle distance) with Emirates,[317] although Air France briefly operated the A380 on the much shorter Paris-Charles de Gaulle to London-Heathrow route (344 km or 214 miles) in mid-2010.[318] The longest A380 route — and the third longest non-stop commercial flight in the world — is Qantas’ service from Sydney International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport at 13,804 kilometres (8,577 mi).[319][320]

Incidents and accidents

The A380 has been involved in one aviation occurrence and no hull loss accidents with no fatalities as of January 2016, according to the Aviation Safety Network.[321][322]

On 4 November 2010, Qantas Flight 32, en route from Singapore Changi Airport to Sydney Airport, suffered an uncontained engine failure, resulting in a series of related problems, and forcing the flight to return to Singapore. There were no injuries to the passengers, crew or people on the ground despite debris falling onto the Indonesian island of Batam.[323] The A380 was damaged sufficiently for the event to be classified as an accident.[324] Qantas subsequently grounded all of its A380s that day subject to an internal investigation taken in conjunction with the engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce plc. A380s powered by Engine Alliance GP7000 were unaffected but operators of Rolls-Royce Trent 900-powered A380s were affected. Investigators determined that an oil leak, caused by a defective oil supply pipe, led to an engine fire and subsequent uncontained engine failure.[325] Repairs cost an estimated A$139 million (~US$145M).[326] As other Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engines also showed problems with the same oil leak, Rolls-Royce ordered many engines to be changed, including about half of the engines in the Qantas A380 fleet.[327] During the airplane’s repair, cracks were discovered in wing structural fittings which also resulted in mandatory inspections of all A380s and subsequent design changes.[108]

Specifications

Comparison between four of the largest aircraft:

  Hughes H-4 Hercules
  Antonov An-225 Mriya
  Airbus A380-800
  Boeing 747-8
Layout of A380-800, 519 seat configuration (331 lower, 188 upper)
Variant A380-800[122]
Cockpit crew Two
Typical seating 544 (4-class)
Exit Limit 868[328]
Length overall 72.72 m (238 ft 7 in)
Wingspan 79.75 m (261 ft 8 in)
Height 24.09 m (79 ft 0 in)
Wheelbase 31.88 m (104 ft 7 in)
Wheel track 12.46 m (40 ft 11 in), 14.34 m (47 ft 1 in) total width[215]
Outside fuselage
dimensions
Width: 7.14 m (23 ft 5 in)
Height: 8.41 m (27 ft 7 in)
Maximum
cabin width
6.50 m (21 ft 4 in) main deck
5.80 m (19 ft 0 in) upper deck
Cabin length 49.9 m (163 ft 9 in) main deck
44.93 m (147 ft 5 in) upper deck[verification needed]
Wing area 845 m2 (9,100 sq ft)[329]
Aspect ratio 7.53
Wing sweep 33.5°[329]
Maximum ramp weight 577 t (1,272,000 lb)
Maximum take-off weight 575 t (1,268,000 lb)
Max. landing weight 394 t (869,000 lb)
Max. zero fuel weight 369 t (814,000 lb)
Operating empty weight 276.8 t (610,000 lb)[330]
Max. structural payload 84 t (185,000 lb)[215]
Maximum cargo volume 184 m3 (6,500 cu ft)
Maximum operating speed Mach 0.89 (587 mph; 945 km/h)
Maximum design speed Mach 0.96 (634 mph; 1,020 km/h)[a][331]
Cruise speed Mach 0.85 (561 mph; 903 km/h)[136]
Take off (MTOW, SL, ISA) 3,000 m (9,800 ft)[215]
Landing speed 130 kn (240 km/h)[136]
Range 15,200 km / 8,200 nmi
Service ceiling 13,100 m (43,000 ft)[332]
Max. fuel capacity 320,000 L / 84,600 USgal
Engines (4 ×) Engine Alliance GP7200 / Rolls-Royce Trent 900
Thrust (4 ×) 311 kN (70,000 lbf)
type certificate[328]
Variant Certification Engine Thrust
A380-841 12 December 2006 Trent 970-84/970B-84 348.31 kN
A380-842 12 December 2006 Trent 972-84/972B-84 356.81 kN
A380-861 14 December 2007 Engine Alliance GP7270 332.44 kN
Tehran – Sao Paulo , Fly By “Boeing 777-200LR”

Tehran – Sao Paulo , Fly By “Boeing 777-200LR”

Tehran To Sao Paulo

Iran To Brazil , Distance 7133 nm

Fly by Boeing 777-200LR

Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and Southern Hemisphere,[3] the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange. Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 10th largest GDP in the world,[4] representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP[5] and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil,[6] and has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005.[7]

The metropolis is also home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural, economic and political influence both nationally and internationally. It is home to monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week and the ATP Brasil Open. São Paulo hosts the world’s largest gay pride parade. It is headquarters of the Brazilian television networks Band, Gazeta, Record and SBT.

São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado, Bixiga, and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is also home to the largest Jewish population in the country and one of the largest urban Jewish populations in the world.[8] People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos. The city’s Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as “I am not led, I lead.”[9] The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. According to a report from 2011, São Paulo was expected to have the third highest economic growth in the world between 2011 and 2025, after London and Mexico City.[10] São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.

The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. The Jesuit college of twelve priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, and their structure was located on top of a steep hill between the rivers Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí.[11]

They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by the Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach (catechesis) the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba.[12]

The name of the college was chosen as it was founded on the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus:[12]

The settlement of the region’s Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college. It was then named “College of St. Paul Piratininga”. The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups. It was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.[12]

For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived largely through the mostly native population’s cultivation of subsistence crops. For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil’s interior, as travel was too difficult to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the “Path Piraiquê” (Piaçaguera today), because of frequent Indian raids along it.[12]

On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee of the Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital to the village of St. Paul, designating it the “Head of the captaincy.” The new capital was established on April 23, 1683, with public celebrations.[12]

The Bandeirantes

Main article: Bandeirantes

Courtyard of the College, Pátio do Colégio, in the Historic Center of São Paulo. At this location, the city was founded in 1554. The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in 1653.

In the 17th century, São Paulo was one of the poorest regions of the Portuguese colony. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves, as did other Portuguese colonists. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, brought attention and new settlers to São Paulo. The Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro was created on November 3, 1709, when the Portuguese crown purchased the Captaincies of São Paulo and Santo Amaro from the former grantees.[12]

Conveniently located in the country, up the steep Serra do Mar sea ridge when travelling from Santos, while also not too far from the coastline, São Paulo became a safe place to stay for tired travellers. The town became a centre for the bandeirantes, intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to make slaves of. The bandeirantes, which could be translated as “flag-bearers” or “flag-followers”, organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown. Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The bandeirantes eventually became politically powerful as a group, and were considered responsible for the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city of São Paulo in 1640, after a series of conflicts between the Jesuits and the bandeirantes over the trade of Indian slaves.[12]

On July 11, 1711, the town of São Paulo was elevated to city status. Around the 1720s, gold was found by the pioneers in the regions near what are now Cuiabá and Goiania. The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line.[12]

When the gold ran out in the late 18th century, São Paulo shifted to growing sugar cane, which spread through the interior of the Captaincy. The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. At that time, the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast was constructed and named the Walk of Lorraine.[12]

Nowadays, the estate that is home to the Governor of the State of São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, is called the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Palace of Bandeirantes), in the neighbourhood of Morumbi.[12]

After Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1823, as declared by Dom Pedro I where the Monument of Ipiranga is located, he named São Paulo as an Imperial City. In 1827, a law school was founded at the Convent of São Francisco, these days a part of the University of São Paulo. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city’s growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St. Paul of Piratininga.[12]

The expansion of coffee production was a major factor in the growth of São Paulo, as it became the region’s chief export crop and yielded good revenue. It was cultivated initially in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraíba Valley) region in the East of the State of São Paulo, and later on in the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto.[12]

From 1869 onwards, São Paulo was connected to the port of Santos by the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, nicknamed The Lady. In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. São Paulo became the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. Coffee was the economic engine for major economic and population growth in the State of São Paulo.[12]

In 1888, the “Golden Law” (Lei Áurea) was sanctioned by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, declaring abolished the slavery institution in Brazil. Slaves were the main source of labour in the coffee plantations until then. As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians, Japanese and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital. The region’s first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese.[12]

Old Republican Period

Paulista Avenue in 1902

By the time Brazil became a republic on November 15, 1889, coffee exports were still an important part of São Paulo’s economy. São Paulo grew strong in the national political scene, taking turns with the also rich state of Minas Gerais in electing Brazilian presidents, an alliance that became known as “coffee and milk”, given that Minas Gerais was famous for its dairy produce.[12]

Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. By the hands of some industrious families, including many immigrants of Italian and Jewish origin, factories began to arise and São Paulo became known for its smoky, foggy air. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Some examples of notable modernist artists are poets Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, artists Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Lasar Segall, and sculptor Victor Brecheret. The Modern Art Week of 1922 that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art.[12]

São Paulo’s main economic activities derive from the services industry—factories are since long gone, and in came financial services institutions, law firms, consulting firms. Old factory buildings and warehouses still dot the landscape in neighborhoods such as Barra Funda and Brás. Some cities around São Paulo, such as Diadema, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, and Cubatão are still heavily industrialized to the present day, with factories producing from cosmetics to chemicals to automobiles.[12]

Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932

Obelisk of São Paulo, at Ibirapuera Park, a symbol of the Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932

This “revolution” is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil’s history. On July 9, 1932, the population of São Paulo town rose against a coup d’état by Getúlio Vargas to take the presidential office. The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government. The 1930 coup also affected São Paulo by eroding the autonomy that states enjoyed during the term of the 1891 Constitution and preventing the inauguration of the governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes in the Presidency of the Republic, while simultaneously overthrowing President Washington Luís, who was governor of São Paulo from 1920 to 1924. These events marked the end of the Old Republic.[12]

The uprising commenced on July 9, 1932, after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.[12]

In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of the political elites of two other powerful states, (Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul), the politicians from São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo revolt was militarily crushed on October 2, 1932. In total, there were 87 days of fighting (July 9 to October 4, 1932—with the last two days after the surrender of São Paulo), with a balance of 934 official deaths, though non-official estimates report up to 2,200 dead, and many cities in the state of São Paulo suffered damage due to fighting.[12]

There is an obelisk in front of Ibirapuera Park that serves as a memorial to the young men that died for the MMDC. The University of São Paulo’s Law School also pays homage to the students that died during this period with plaques hung on its arcades.[12]

Geography

Physical setting

Jaraguá Peak is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).[13]

São Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern São Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. The city is located on a plateau located beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for “Sea Range” or “Coastal Range”), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. The distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see “Transportation” below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.[14]

Subdivisions

São Paulo is divided into 32 subprefectures, each one divided into several districts.[15] The city also has a radial division into nine zones for purpose of traffic control and bus lines, which don’t fit into the administrative divisions. These zones are identified by colours in the street signs. Most of the economic and tourist facilities of the city are inside an area called “extended downtown” (Centro Expandido), composed by six subprefectures: Sé, Lapa, Pinheiros, Vila Mariana, Ipiranga and Mooca. The Subprefecture of Butantã, outside this area, hosts the main campus of the University of São Paulo and the headquarters of the Government of State of São Paulo. Other two subprefectures, Santo Amaro and Santana-Tucuruvi also host important touristic and economic facilities.

Metropolitan area

Main article: Greater São Paulo

Satellite view of Greater São Paulo at night.

The nonspecific term “Grande São Paulo” (“Greater São Paulo“) covers multiple definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 21.1 million[16] inhabitants (as of the 2014 National Census). The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is known as the financial, economic and cultural center of Brazil. The largest municipalities are Guarulhos with a population of more than 1 million people, plus several municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo (811,000 inh.) and Santo André (707,000 inh.) in the ABC Region. The ABC Region in the south of Grande São Paulo is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford Motors.[17]

Because São Paulo has urban sprawl, it uses a different definition for its metropolitan area called Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo. Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants,[18] behind Tokyo, which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 microregions.

Hydrography

See also: Water management in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo

The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo. However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.[19]

No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city’s southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing. The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.[20]

In 2015, São Paulo experienced a major drought, which led several cities in the state to start a rationing system.[21]

Climate

The city has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to the Köppen classification.[22] In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). In winter, temperatures tend to range between 11 and 23 °C (52 and 73 °F).

The recorded high was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on October 17, 2014[23] and the lowest −2 °C (28 °F) on August 2, 1955 and on the same day −3.8 °C (25.2 °F) was recorded unofficially. Temperature averages are similar to those of Sydney and Los Angeles. The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23°27′ S, passes through north of São Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo enjoys a temperate climate.[24]

Heavy rain and lightning in São Paulo, which has the largest number of lightning incidents amongst Brazilian state capitals.[25]

The city experiences four seasons. The winter is mild and sub-dry, and the summer is moderately warm and rainy. Fall and spring are transitional seasons. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city. Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter.

Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).[26] It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in). Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone and tornadic activity is uncommon. During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as “veranico” or “verãozinho” (“little summer”), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example. In the summer of 2012, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for 2 weeks with highs going from 29 to 34 °C (84 to 93 °F) on the hottest days. Secondary to deforestation, groundwater pollution, and climate change, São Paulo is increasingly susceptible to drought and water shortages.[27]

Due to the altitude of the city, there are few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (69 °F). In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon.

Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 and 15 °C (55 and 59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring. During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during all afternoon.

São Paulo is known for its rapidly changing weather. Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold. When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures. This phenomenon happens usually in the winter.

Tromso in Norway Is New Destination for Qeshm Virtual Airlines

Tromso in Norway Is New Destination for Qeshm Virtual Airlines

New Destination for Qeshm Virtual Airlines

Tehran To Tromso

Iran To Norway , Distance 2430 nm

Fly by Airbus 330-300 And Airbus 300-600

Tromso
Tromsø lies in Northern Norway. The municipality has a population of (2015) 72,066, but with an annual influx of students it has over 75,000 most of the year. It is the largest urban area in Northern Norway and the third largest north of the Arctic Circle (following Murmansk and Norilsk). Most of Tromsø, including the city centre, is located on the island of Tromsøya, 350 kilometres (217 mi) north of the Arctic Circle. In 2012, Tromsøya had a population of 36,088. Substantial parts of the urban area are also situated on the mainland to the east, and on parts of Kvaløya—a large island to the west. Tromsøya is connected to the mainland by the Tromsø Bridge and the Tromsøysund Tunnel, and to the island of Kvaløya by the Sandnessund Bridge. Tromsø Airport connects the city to many destinations in Europe. The city is warmer than most other places located on the same latitude, due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream.

The city centre of Tromsø contains the highest number of old wooden houses in Northern Norway, the oldest house dating from 1789. The Arctic Cathedral, a modern church from 1965, is probably the most famous landmark in Tromsø. The city is a cultural centre for its region, with several festivals taking place in the summer. Some of Norway’s best-known musicians, Torbjørn Brundtland and Svein Berge of the electronica duo Röyksopp and Lene Marlin grew up and started their careers in Tromsø. Noted electronic musician Geir Jenssen also hails from Tromsø.

The most famous soccer team in the area, Tromsø IL, currently plays in the Norwegian Premier League.
History

The area has been inhabited since the end of the ice age. Archeological excavations in Tønsvika, just outside the city limits, have turned up artifacts and remains of buildings estimated to be 9,000 to 10,000 years old.[3]
Middle Ages: a fortress on the frontier
Hoard of Viking jewellery found in Tromsø dating from 7–8th Centuries AD now in the British Museum.[4]

The area’s rich Norse and Sámi heritage is well documented. The Norse chieftain Ohthere, who lived during the 890s, is assumed to have inhabited the southernmost reaches of today’s Tromsø municipality. He described himself as living “furthest to the North of all Norwegians” with areas north of this being populated by Sámi.[5] An Icelandic source (Rimbegla) from the 12th century also describes the fjord Malangen in the south of today’s Tromsø municipality as a border between Norse and Sámi coastal settlements during that part of the Middle Ages. There has also been extensive Sámi settlement on the coast south of this ‘border’ as well as scattered Norse settlements north of Malangen – for example, both Sámi and Norse Iron Age (0–1050 AD) remains have been found on southern Kvaløya.[6][7]

The first church on the island of Tromsøya was erected in 1252. Ecclesia Sanctae Mariae de Trums juxta paganos (“The Church of Saint Mary in Troms near the Heathens” – the nominal “heathens” being the Sámi), was built during the reign of King Hákon Hákonarson.[8] At the time, it was the northernmost church in the world. Around the same time a turf rampart was built to protect the area against raids from Karelia and Russia.

Tromsø was not just a Norwegian outpost in an area mainly populated by the Sámi, but also a frontier city towards Russia; the Novgorod state had the right to tax the Sámi along the coast to Lyngstuva and inland to the Skibotn River or possibly the Målselv River, whereas Norway was allowed to tax areas east to – and including – the Kola Peninsula.[6] During the next five hundred years Norway’s border with Russia and the limits of Norwegian settlement would be pushed eastwards to Sør-Varanger, making Tromsø lose its character as a “frontier town”.
1700s and 1800s: the “Paris of the north”

During the 17th century, while Denmark–Norway was solidifying its claim to the northern coast of Scandinavia and during this period a redoubt, Skansen, was built. Despite only being home to around 80 people, Tromsø was issued its city charter in 1794 by King Christian VII. This coincided with, and was a direct consequence of, the abolition of the city of Bergen’s centuries-old monopoly on the trade in cod. Tromsø quickly rose in importance. The Diocese of Hålogaland was created in 1804, with the first bishop being Mathias Bonsak Krogh.[9] The city was established as a municipality 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Arctic hunting, from Novaya Zemlya to Canada, started up around 1820. By 1850, Tromsø was the major centre of Arctic hunting, overtaking the former centre of Hammerfest, and the city was trading from Arkhangelsk to Bordeaux. The town also grew increasingly important in other maritime economic activities, with the first shipyard being established in 1848.

In 1848, the teacher training college was also moved from Trondenes (near current-day Harstad) to Tromsø, with part of its mission being to educate Sámi scholars – there was a quota ensuring that Sámi gained access.[10] The teacher college was followed by the Tromsø Museum in 1872,[11] and the Mack Brewery in 1877.[12]

During the 19th century, Tromsø became known as the “Paris of the North”. How this nickname came into being is uncertain, but the reason is generally assumed to be that people in Tromsø appeared far more sophisticated than visitors from the south typically expected.[13]
Early 1900s: exploration and war
Photochrom print from Tromsø, 1900

By the end of the 19th century, Tromsø had become a major Arctic trade centre from which many Arctic expeditions originated. Explorers like Roald Amundsen, Umberto Nobile and Fridtjof Nansen made use of the know-how in Tromsø on the conditions in the Arctic, and often recruited their crews in the city. The Northern lights observatory was founded in 1927.

When Germany invaded Norway in 1940, Tromsø served briefly as the seat of the Norwegian government. General Carl Gustav Fleischer arrived in Tromsø on 10 April 1940 after flying in terrible conditions. From Tromsø he issued orders for total civilian and military mobilisation and declared Northern Norway a theatre of war. Fleischer’s strategic plan was to first wipe out the German forces at Narvik and then transfer his division to Nordland to meet a German advance from Trøndelag. The Germans eventually captured all of Norway, after allied support had been withdrawn, although they encountered fierce resistance from the Finnmark-based Alta Battalion at Narvik. Tromsø escaped the war unscathed, although the German battleship Tirpitz was sunk by the RAF off the Tromsøy island on 12 November 1944, killing close to 1,000 German sailors.[14][15]
The German battleship Tirpitz was bombed and sunk off Tromsø island in 1944.

At the end of the war, the city received thousands of refugees from Finnmark county and the North Troms area – which had been devastated by German forces using scorched earth tactics in expectation of the Red Army offensive.[16]
Late 1900s – today: rapid expansion

Expansion after World War II has been rapid. The rural municipalities of Tromsøysund and Ullsfjord, and most of Hillesøy, were merged with Tromsø on 1 January 1964, creating today’s Tromsø municipality and almost tripling Tromsø’s population – from 12,430 to 32,664.[17] In addition, the population growth has been strong, with at times more than 1,000 new Tromsøværinger (residents of Tromsø) annually. The population of Tromsø municipality today is 68,239, and the urban area, Norway’s ninth most populous, is home to 58,486 people.[18] This excludes most of the city’s students, however, who often do not change their address when moving to Tromsø.

A major development was the opening of Tromsø Airport in 1964, situated on the main island, and in 1972 the University of Tromsø was opened, at the time one of four universities in Norway and the only one serving the northern half of the country. A local teacher’s college and museum were eventually incorporated into the university. The Norwegian Polar Institute was moved to Tromsø from Oslo in 1998. More recently, the university has expanded further through two mergers, first with University College Tromsø in 2009 and then with University College Finnmark in 2013.
Municipal history

The city of Tromsø was established as an independent municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The city was completely surrounded by the Tromsøe landdistrikt (the rural municipality of Tromsø / later renamed Tromsøysund), but they were governed separately. As the city grew in size, areas were added to the city from the rural district.

On 1 January 1861, an area of Tromsøysund (population: 110) was transferred to the city of Tromsø. On 1 January 1873, an unpopulated area of Tromsøysund was transferred to the city. On 1 July 1915, another area of Tromsøysund (population: 512) was merged into the city of Tromsø. On 1 January 1955, the Bjerkaker area on Tromsøya (population: 1,583) was transferred from Tromsøysund to the city of Tromsø.

On 1 January 1964, a major municipal merger took place. The city of Tromsø (population: 12,602), the municipality of Tromsøysund (population: 16,727), most of the municipality of Ullsfjord except for the Svendsby area (population: 2,019), and most of the municipality of Hillesøy except for the parts on Senja (population: 1,316) were all merged to form a new, larger municipality of Tromsø.[19]
Toponymy
The city of Tromsø is named after the island of Tromsøya, on which it stands. The last element of the city’s name comes from ‘island’ (Norwegian: øy, Danish: ø), but the etymology of the first element is uncertain. Several theories exist. One theory holds “Troms-” to derive from the old (uncompounded) name of the island (Old Norse: Trums). Several islands and rivers in Norway have the name Tromsa, and the names of these are probably derived from the word straumr which means “(strong) current”. (The original form must then have been Strums, for the missing s see Indo-European s-mobile.) Another theory holds that Tromsøya was originally called Lille Tromsøya (Little Tromsøya), because of its proximity to the much bigger island today called Kvaløya, that according to this theory was earlier called “Store Tromsøya” due to a characteristic mountain known as Tromma (the Drum). The mountain’s name in Sámi, Rumbbučohkka, is identical in meaning, and it is said to have been a sacred mountain for the Sámi in pre-Christian times.

The Sámi name of the island, Romsa, is assumed to be a loan from Norse – but according to the phonetical rules of the Sami language the frontal t has disappeared from the name.[citation needed] However, an alternative form – Tromsa – is in informal use. There is a theory that holds the Norwegian name of Tromsø derives from the Sámi name, though this theory lacks an explanation for the meaning of Romsa. A common misunderstanding is that Tromsø’s Sámi name is Romssa with a double “s”. This, however, is the accusative and genitive form of the noun used when, for example, writing “Tromsø Municipality” (Romssa Suohkan). In Finnish, however, the word is written with a double “s”: Tromssa.
Coat of arms
A relief of the arms on a 1910 façade.

The coat of arms of Tromsø was devised in 1870 and is blazoned “Azure, a reindeer trippant Argent.”[20] It is often surmounted by a mural crown with five or four turrets. The municipal authority currently uses a stylised rendering drawn by Hallvard Trætteberg (1898–1987) and adopted by royal resolution on 24 September 1941.[21]
Geography

Tromsø is the eighth-largest municipality in Norway with a population of 71,590, and the centre of the ninth-largest urban area, with a population of about 60,000. The city is home to the world’s northernmost university and also houses the northernmost botanical garden[22] and planetarium.[23]

The city centre is located on the east side of the Tromsøya island — over 300 kilometres (190 mi) north of the Arctic Circle at 69°40′33″N 18°55′10″E. Suburban areas include Kroken, Tromsdalen (on the mainland, east of Tromsøya), the rest of the Tromsøya island, and the eastern part of the large Kvaløya, west of the Tromsøya island. The Tromsø Bridge and Tromsøysund Tunnel both cross the Tromsøysundet strait connecting the mainland with Tromsøya by road. On the western side of the city, the Sandnessund Bridge connects Tromsøya island with Kvaløya island.

There are many tall mountains within the municipality including Hamperokken, Jiehkkevárri, Store Blåmann, Store Fornestinden, and Tromsdalstinden. The Lyngen Alps mountain range lies along the Tromsø-Lyngen municipal border. There are many islands within the municipality of Tromsø including Hillesøya, Kvaløya, Rebbenesøya, Ringvassøya, Sommarøya, and Tromsøya. There are also several fjords that are located in Tromsø including the Balsfjorden, Kaldfjorden, Malangen, and Ullsfjorden.

Climate
Tromsø in May

Tromsø experiences a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc) because winter temperatures are just cold enough to qualify and the summer season is short. However, the weather and precipitation amount and pattern, with maximum precipitation in autumn and early winter, as well as lack of permafrost, are atypical for subarctic areas. The warming and moderating influence of the Gulf Stream contributes to Tromsø having an extremely mild climate for such a northerly area, with seasonal differences in temperature also being rather small in spite of the massive fluctuations of daylight.

Tromsø has reputation of accumulating a lot of snow in winter, but on the streets of the city ice often prevails, especially in the first half of the winter. Despite its northern location, Tromsø’s snowfall pattern is quite erratic and varies substantially between different winters.[24] This erratic snowfall pattern is due to the fact that Tromsø is within the Gulf Stream area of influence, and often gets wet but warm spells, bringing rain that melts or wets existing snow. This is often followed by chilly windy Arctic blasts, creating the famous dangerous ice driving and walking conditions. It is common to see Tromsø inhabitants walking with spikes in their shoes and almost all cars use studded tires. The all-time record for snow depth was set on 29 April 1997, when the meteorological station on top of Tromsøya recorded 240 centimetres (94.5 in) of snow on the ground.[25] In an average winter, Tromsø sees 160 days with at least 25 cm of snow on the ground (based on 1970–2000 average and recorded at the met.office station on top of the island, 100 m asl).[26] Temperature averages are for the period 1961 to 1990 for the main weather station, located at the Meteorological Institute’s office on the top of the island. Extremes are from the same station for the full period of record through 2010. The lowest temperature ever recorded is −18.4 °C (−1.1 °F), in February 1966.[25] However, at the airport, also in the city, the lowest ever recording is −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) in February 1985.[27] These cold extremes are extremely mild for such a northerly location and are actually milder than winter normal highs in much more southerly areas elsewhere such as in central Siberia and boreal Canada.

The January average daily maximum is −2.2 °C (28.0 °F).[25] Summers are rather cool, with average high and low temperatures in July of 15.3 °C (59.5 °F) and 8.7 °C (47.7 °F).[25] The highest temperature ever recorded is 30.2 °C (86.4 °F), in July 1972.[25] Outside the city, large areas in the municipality are above the treeline and have an alpine tundra climate. Despite being a full 10 degrees further north than the Norwegian capital, Oslo, winter temperatures are very similar. On the west coast of Kvaløya (Sommarøy), climate data show a mean annual temperature of 3.9 °C (39.0 °F), mostly because winters here are 2 °C (36 °F) warmer compared to the city,[28] making this part of the municipality a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) zone. Tromsø has the distinction of being the northernmost city on earth where the average yearly low remains above freezing. The “midnight sun” is above the horizon from 19 May to 27 July, and the period with continuous daylight lasts a bit longer, polar night from 28 November to 14 January. Due to the extreme maritime influence, temperatures above freezing are not uncommon during the polar night period. This is in stark contrast to nearby inland areas such as Swedish Lapland where winter temperatures are bitterly cold.
Light and darkness
The Northern Lights in Tromsø
The Northern Lights near Tromsø.
Early afternoon during the polar night in Tromsø, Norway.
Tromsø in midnight sun in July
Tromsø in midnight sun in July.
Tromsø Airport on midday in early January.

The midnight sun occurs from about 18 May to 26 July, but the mountains in the north block the view of it for a few days, meaning that one can see the midnight sun from about 21 May to 21 July. Owing to Tromsø’s high latitude, twilight is long, meaning there is no real darkness between late April and mid-August.

The sun remains below the horizon during the polar night from about 26 November to 15 January, but owing to the mountains, the sun is not visible from 21 November to 21 January. The return of the sun is an occasion for celebration. However, because of the twilight, there is some daylight for a couple of hours even around midwinter, often with bluish light. The nights shorten quickly. By 21 February the sun is above the horizon from 7:45 am to 4:10 pm, and by 1 April it is above the horizon from 5:50 am to 7:50 pm (daylight saving time).

The combination of snow cover and sunshine often creates intense light conditions from late February until the snow melts in the lowland (usually late April), and sunglasses are essential when skiing. Because of these diametrically different light conditions in winter, Norwegians often divide it into two seasons: Mørketid (polar night) and Seinvinter (late winter).

Tromsø is in the middle of the aurora borealis (northern lights) zone, and is one of the best places in the world to observe the aurora. Because of the Earth’s rotation, Tromsø moves into the aurora zone around 6 pm, and moves out again around midnight. As it is light round the clock in the summer, no aurora is visible between late April and mid-August.